@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.94}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c year=1999 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc pub1999.txt -ob pub1999.bib}}
  author = {{Lewis}, S.~R. and {Collins}, M. and {Read}, P.~L. and {Forget}, F. and 
	{Hourdin}, F. and {Fournier}, R. and {Hourdin}, C. and {Talagrand}, O. and 
	{Huot}, J.-P.},
  title = {{A climate database for Mars}},
  journal = {\jgr},
  year = 1999,
  volume = 104,
  pages = {24177-24194},
  abstract = {{A database of statistics which describe the climate and surface
environment of Mars has been constructed directly on the basis of output
from multiannual integrations of two general circulation models
developed jointly at Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique
du Center National de la Recherche Scientifique, France, and the
University of Oxford, United Kingdom, with support from the European
Space Agency. The models have been developed and validated to reproduce
the main features of the meteorology of Mars, as observed by past
spacecraft missions. As well as the more standard statistical measures
for mission design studies, the Mars Climate Database includes a novel
representation of large-scale variability, using empirical
eigenfunctions derived from an analysis of the full simulations, and
small-scale variability using parameterizations of processes such as
gravity wave propagation. The database may be used as a tool for mission
planning and also provides a valuable resource for scientific studies of
the Martian atmosphere. The database is described and critically
compared with a representative range of currently available
  doi = {10.1029/1999JE001024},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Forget}, F. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Fournier}, R. and {Hourdin}, C. and 
	{Talagrand}, O. and {Collins}, M. and {Lewis}, S.~R. and {Read}, P.~L. and 
	{Huot}, J.-P.},
  title = {{Improved general circulation models of the Martian atmosphere from the surface to above 80 km}},
  journal = {\jgr},
  year = 1999,
  volume = 104,
  pages = {24155-24176},
  abstract = {{We describe a set of two ``new generation'' general circulation models
of the Martian atmosphere derived from the models we originally
developed in the early 1990s. The two new models share the same physical
parameterizations but use two complementary numerical methods to solve
the atmospheric dynamic equations. The vertical resolution near the
surface has been refined, and the vertical domain has been extended to
above 80 km. These changes are accompanied by the inclusion of
state-of-the -art parameterizations to better simulate the dynamical and
physical processes near the surface (boundary layer scheme,
subgrid-scale topography parameterization, etc.) and at high altitude
(gravity wave drag). In addition, radiative transfer calculations and
the representation of polar processes have been significantly improved.
We present some examples of zonal-mean fields from simulations using the
model at several seasons. One relatively novel aspect, previously
introduced by Wilson [1997], is that around northern winter solstice the
strong pole to pole diabatic forcing creates a quasi-global,
angular-momentum conserving Hadley cell which has no terrestrial
equivalent. Within such a cell the Coriolis forces accelerate the winter
meridional flow toward the pole and induce a strong warming of the
middle polar atmosphere down to 25 km. This winter polar warming had
been observed but not properly modeled until recently. In fact, thermal
inversions are generally predicted above one, and often both, poles
around 60-70 km. However, the Mars middle atmosphere above 40 km is
found to be very model-sensitive and thus difficult to simulate
accurately in the absence of observations.
  doi = {10.1029/1999JE001025},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Lebonnois}, S. and {Toublanc}, D.},
  title = {{Actinic fluxes in Titan's atmosphere, from one to three dimensions: Application to high-latitude composition}},
  journal = {\jgr},
  keywords = {Planetology: Solid Surface Planets, Planetology: Solid Surface Planets: Atmospheres-composition and chemistry, Planetology: Solar System Objects: Saturnian satellites},
  year = 1999,
  volume = 104,
  pages = {22025-22034},
  abstract = {{We present a study on diurnally and annually averaged values of the
actinic fluxes used in one-dimensional (1-D) photochemical models, as
well as a 3-D radiative transfer model, based on Monte Carlo
calculations with application to the atmosphere of Titan. This study
shows that the commonly used value $\lt${\thetas}$\gt$=30{\deg} for the mean
incident angle at the equator in photochemical models of Titan is not
the best choice, though changing the value has no dramatic effects on
photochemistry. The results of the 3-D code give direct access to the
photolysis rates at any point in the atmosphere. The necessity of 3-D
values in a deep atmosphere such as Titan's is demonstrated particularly
for high-latitude winter conditions. These 3-D photolysis rates are used
to model the latitudinal variations of the chemical composition of
Titan's atmosphere in a 1-D photochemical model adapted to different
latitudes. This study shows that these kinds of simple photochemical
models cannot reproduce the observed latitudinal behavior and that we
need to develop real 2-D photochemical models of Titan's atmosphere.
  doi = {10.1029/1999JE001056},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}