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@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c year=2000 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc pub2000.txt -ob pub2000.bib}}
  author = {{Bertaux}, J.-L. and {Fonteyn}, D. and {Korablev}, O. and {Chassefière}, E. and 
	{Dimarellis}, E. and {Dubois}, J.~P. and {Hauchecorne}, A. and 
	{Cabane}, M. and {Rannou}, P. and {Levasseur-Regourd}, A.~C. and 
	{Cernogora}, G. and {Quemerais}, E. and {Hermans}, C. and {Kockarts}, G. and 
	{Lippens}, C. and {Maziere}, M.~D. and {Moreau}, D. and {Muller}, C. and 
	{Neefs}, B. and {Simon}, P.~C. and {Forget}, F. and {Hourdin}, F. and 
	{Talagrand}, O. and {Moroz}, V.~I. and {Rodin}, A. and {Sandel}, B. and 
	{Stern}, A.},
  title = {{The study of the martian atmosphere from top to bottom with SPICAM light on mars express}},
  journal = {\planss},
  year = 2000,
  volume = 48,
  pages = {1303-1320},
  abstract = {{SPICAM Light is a small UV-IR instrument selected for Mars Express to
recover most of the science that was lost with the demise of Mars 96,
where the SPICAM set of sensors was dedicated to the study of the
atmosphere of Mars (Spectroscopy for the investigation of the
characteristics of the atmosphere of mars). The new configuration of
SPICAM Light includes optical sensors and an electronics block. A UV
spectrometer (118-320 nm, resolution 0.8 nm) is dedicated to Nadir
viewing, limb viewing and vertical profiling by stellar occultation (3.8
kg). It addresses key issues about ozone, its coupling with H
$_{2}$O, aerosols, atmospheric vertical temperature structure and
ionospheric studies. An IR spectrometer (1.2- 4.8 {$\mu$}m, resolution
0.4-1 nm) is dedicated to vertical profiling during solar occultation of
H $_{2}$O, CO $_{2}$, CO, aerosols and exploration of carbon
compounds (3.5 kg). A nadir looking sensor for H $_{2}$O
abundances (1.0- 1.7 {$\mu$}m, resolution 0.8 nm) is recently included in
the package (0.8 kg). A simple data processing unit (DPU, 0.9 kg)
provides the interface of these sensors with the spacecraft. In nadir
orientation, SPICAM UV is essentially an ozone detector, measuring the
strongest O $_{3}$ absorption band at 250 nm in the spectrum of
the solar light scattered back from the ground. In the stellar
occultation mode the UV Sensor will measure the vertical profiles of CO
$_{2}$, temperature, O $_{3}$, clouds and aerosols. The
density/temperature profiles obtained with SPICAM Light will constrain
and aid in the development of the meteorological and dynamical
atmospheric models, from the surface to 160 km in the atmosphere. This
is essential for future missions that will rely on aerocapture and
aerobraking. UV observations of the upper atmosphere will allow study of
the ionosphere through the emissions of CO, CO $^{+}$, and CO
$_{2}$$^{+}$, and its direct interaction with the solar
wind. Also, it will allow a better understanding of escape mechanisms
and estimates of their magnitude, crucial for insight into the long-term
evolution of the atmosphere. The SPICAM Light IR sensor is inherited
from the IR solar part of the SPICAM solar occultation instrument of
Mars 96. Its main scientific objective is the global mapping of the
vertical structure of H $_{2}$O, CO $_{2}$, CO, HDO,
aerosols, atmospheric density, and temperature by the solar occultation.
The wide spectral range of the IR spectrometer and its high spectral
resolution allow an exploratory investigation addressing fundamental
question of the possible presence of carbon compounds in the Martian
atmosphere. Because of severe mass constraints this channel is still
optional. An additional nadir near IR channel that employs a pioneering
technology acousto-optical tuneable filter (AOTF) is dedicated to the
measurement of water vapour column abundance in the IR simultaneously
with ozone measured in the UV. It will be done at much lower telemetry
budget compared to the other instrument of the mission, planetary
fourier spectrometer (PFS).
  doi = {10.1016/S0032-0633(00)00111-2},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Burgdorf}, M.~J. and {Encrenaz}, T. and {Lellouch}, E. and 
	{Feuchtgruber}, H. and {Davis}, G.~R. and {Swinyard}, B.~M. and 
	{de Graauw}, T. and {Morris}, P.~W. and {Sidher}, S.~D. and 
	{Griffin}, M.~J. and {Forget}, F. and {Lim}, T.~L.},
  title = {{ISO Observations of Mars: An Estimate of the Water Vapor Vertical Distribution and the Surface Emissivity}},
  journal = {\icarus},
  year = 2000,
  volume = 145,
  pages = {79-90},
  abstract = {{Infrared spectra of Mars were taken with the two complementary
spectrometers onboard the European Space Agency's Infrared Space
Observatory (ISO), in both moderate- and high-resolution mode. From the
strengths of the observed water lines we derived information about the
vertical distribution of water vapor and on the emissivity of the
dust/surface system in the infrared. Assuming atmospheric and surface
temperatures derived from the European Martian Climate Database with a
slight adjustment to the observed 15-{$\mu$}m CO $_{2}$ band, the ISO
data are consistent with an H $_{2}$O mixing ratio of
(3{\plusmn}1){\times}10 $^{-4}$ at the surface, a saturation level
at 13{\plusmn}2 km, and a total column density of 12{\plusmn}3.5 pr-{$\mu$}m.
The mean disk emissivity is found to be close to 1.0 at 6 {$\mu$}m and
0.92{\plusmn}0.02 at 40 {$\mu$}m. At longer wavelengths the emissivity
decreases from a value of 0.97{\plusmn}0.03 at 50{$\mu$}m to
0.92{\plusmn}0.03 at 180 {$\mu$}m.
  doi = {10.1006/icar.2000.6338},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Clifford}, S.~M. and {Crisp}, D. and {Fisher}, D.~A. and {Herkenhoff}, K.~E. and 
	{Smrekar}, S.~E. and {Thomas}, P.~C. and {Wynn-Williams}, D.~D. and 
	{Zurek}, R.~W. and {Barnes}, J.~R. and {Bills}, B.~G. and {Blake}, E.~W. and 
	{Calvin}, W.~M. and {Cameron}, J.~M. and {Carr}, M.~H. and {Christensen}, P.~R. and 
	{Clark}, B.~C. and {Clow}, G.~D. and {Cutts}, J.~A. and {Dahl-Jensen}, D. and 
	{Durham}, W.~B. and {Fanale}, F.~P. and {Farmer}, J.~D. and 
	{Forget}, F. and {Gotto-Azuma}, K. and {Grard}, R. and {Haberle}, R.~M. and 
	{Harrison}, W. and {Harvey}, R. and {Howard}, A.~D. and {Ingersoll}, A.~P. and 
	{James}, P.~B. and {Kargel}, J.~S. and {Kieffer}, H.~H. and 
	{Larsen}, J. and {Lepper}, K. and {Malin}, M.~C. and {McCleese}, D.~J. and 
	{Murray}, B. and {Nye}, J.~F. and {Paige}, D.~A. and {Platt}, S.~R. and 
	{Plaut}, J.~J. and {Reeh}, N. and {Rice}, J.~W. and {Smith}, D.~E. and 
	{Stoker}, C.~R. and {Tanaka}, K.~L. and {Mosley-Thompson}, E. and 
	{Thorsteinsson}, T. and {Wood}, S.~E. and {Zent}, A. and {Zuber}, M.~T. and 
	{Jay Zwally}, H.},
  title = {{The State and Future of Mars Polar Science and Exploration}},
  journal = {\icarus},
  year = 2000,
  volume = 144,
  pages = {210-242},
  abstract = {{As the planet's principal cold traps, the martian polar regions have
accumulated extensive mantles of ice and dust that cover individual
areas of {\tilde}10 $^{6}$ km $^{2}$ and total as much as 3-4
km thick. From the scarcity of superposed craters on their surface,
these layered deposits are thought to be comparatively
young{\mdash}preserving a record of the seasonal and climatic cycling of
atmospheric CO $_{2}$, H $_{2}$O, and dust over the past
{\tilde}10 $^{5}$-10 $^{8}$ years. For this reason, the
martian polar deposits may serve as a Rosetta Stone for understanding
the geologic and climatic history of the planet{\mdash}documenting
variations in insolation (due to quasiperiodic oscillations in the
planet's obliquity and orbital elements), volatile mass balance,
atmospheric composition, dust storm activity, volcanic eruptions, large
impacts, catastrophic floods, solar luminosity, supernovae, and perhaps
even a record of microbial life. Beyond their scientific value, the
polar regions may soon prove important for another
reason{\mdash}providing a valuable and accessible reservoir of water to
support the long-term human exploration of Mars. In this paper we assess
the current state of Mars polar research, identify the key questions
that motivate the exploration of the polar regions, discuss the extent
to which current missions will address these questions, and speculate
about what additional capabilities and investigations may be required to
address the issues that remain outstanding.
  doi = {10.1006/icar.1999.6290},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}