pub2002.bib

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@article{2002JGRE..107.5124N,
  author = {{Newman}, C.~E. and {Lewis}, S.~R. and {Read}, P.~L. and {Forget}, F.
	},
  title = {{Modeling the Martian dust cycle 2. Multiannual radiatively active dust transport simulations}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Planets)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Planetary atmospheres (5405, 5407, 5409, 5704, 5705, 5707), Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Planetary meteorology (5445, 5739), Planetary Sciences: Atmospheres-structure and dynamics, Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801), Planetary Sciences: Meteorology (3346),},
  year = 2002,
  volume = 107,
  eid = {5124},
  pages = {7-1},
  abstract = {{Multiannual dust transport simulations have been performed using a Mars
general circulation model containing a dust transport scheme which
responds to changes in the atmospheric state. If the dust transport is
``radiatively active,'' the atmospheric state also responds to changes
in the dust distribution. This paper examines the suspended dust
distribution obtained using different lifting parameterizations,
including an analysis of dust storms produced spontaneously during these
simulations. The lifting mechanisms selected are lifting by (1)
near-surface wind stress and (2) convective vortices known as dust
devils. Each mechanism is separated into two types of parameterization:
threshold-sensitive and -insensitive. The latter produce largely
unrealistic annual dust cycles and storms, and no significant
interannual variability. The threshold-sensitive parameterizations
produce more realistic annual and interannual behavior, as well as
storms with similarities to observed events, thus providing insight into
how real Martian dust storms may develop. Simulations for which dust
devil lifting dominates are too dusty during northern summer. This
suggests either that a removal mechanism (such as dust scavenging by
water ice) reduces opacities at this time or that dust devils are not
the primary mechanism for storm production. Simulations for which
near-surface wind stress lifting dominates produce the observed low
opacities during northern spring/summer, yet appear unable to produce
realistic global storms without storm decay being prevented by the
occurrence of large-scale positive feedbacks on further lifting.
Simulated dust levels are generally linked closely to the seasonal state
of the atmosphere, and no simulation produces the observed amount of
interannual variability.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2002JE001920},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JGRE..107.5124N},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2002JGRE..107.5123N,
  author = {{Newman}, C.~E. and {Lewis}, S.~R. and {Read}, P.~L. and {Forget}, F.
	},
  title = {{Modeling the Martian dust cycle, 1. Representations of dust transport processes}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Planets)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Planetary atmospheres (5405, 5407, 5409, 5704, 5705, 5707), Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Planetary meteorology (5445, 5739), Planetary Sciences: Atmospheres-structure and dynamics, Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801), Planetary Sciences: Meteorology (3346),},
  year = 2002,
  volume = 107,
  eid = {5123},
  pages = {6-1},
  abstract = {{A dust transport scheme has been developed for a general circulation
model of the Martian atmosphere. This enables radiatively active dust
transport, with the atmospheric state responding to changes in the dust
distribution via atmospheric heating, as well as dust transport being
determined by atmospheric conditions. The scheme includes dust lifting,
advection by model winds, atmospheric mixing, and gravitational
sedimentation. Parameterizations of lifting initiated by (1)
near-surface wind stress and (2) convective vortices known as dust
devils are considered. Two parameterizations are defined for each
mechanism and are first investigated offline using data previously
output from the non-dust-transporting model. The threshold-insensitive
parameterizations predict some lifting over most regions, varying
smoothly in space and time. The threshold-sensitive parameterizations
predict lifting only during extreme atmospheric conditions (such as
exceptionally strong winds), so lifting is rarer and more confined to
specific regions and times. Wind stress lifting is predicted to peak
during southern summer, largely between latitudes 15{\deg} and 35{\deg}S,
with maxima also in regions of strong slope winds or thermal contrast
flows. These areas are consistent with observed storm onset regions and
dark streak surface features. Dust devil lifting is also predicted to
peak during southern summer, with a moderate peak during northern
summer. The greatest dust devil lifting occurs in early afternoon,
particularly in the Noachis, Arcadia/Amazonis, Sirenum, and Thaumasia
regions. Radiatively active dust transport experiments reveal strong
positive feedbacks on lifting by near-surface wind stress and negative
feedbacks on lifting by dust devils.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2002JE001910},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JGRE..107.5123N},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2002Icar..159..505L,
  author = {{Lebonnois}, S. and {Bakes}, E.~L.~O. and {McKay}, C.~P.},
  title = {{Transition from Gaseous Compounds to Aerosols in Titan's Atmosphere}},
  journal = {\icarus},
  year = 2002,
  volume = 159,
  pages = {505-517},
  abstract = {{We investigate the chemical transition of simple molecules like C
$_{2}$H $_{2}$ and HCN into aerosol particles in the context
of Titan's atmosphere. Experiments that synthesize analogs (tholins) for
these aerosols can help illuminate and constrain these polymerization
mechanisms. Using information available from these experiments, we
suggest chemical pathways that can link simple molecules to
macromolecules, which will be the precursors to aerosol particles:
polymers of acetylene and cyanoacetylene, polycyclic aromatics, polymers
of HCN and other nitriles, and polyynes. Although our goal here is not
to build a detailed kinetic model for this transition, we propose
parameterizations to estimate the production rates of these
macromolecules, their C/N and C/H ratios, and the loss of parent
molecules (C $_{2}$H $_{2}$, HCN, HC $_{3}$N and other
nitriles, and C $_{6}$H $_{6}$) from the gas phase to the
haze. We use a one-dimensional photochemical model of Titan's atmosphere
to estimate the formation rate of precursor macromolecules. We find a
production zone slightly lower than 200 km altitude with a total
production rate of 4{\times}10 $^{-14}$ g cm $^{-2}$ s
$^{-1}$ and a C/N{\sime}4. These results are compared with
experimental data, and to microphysical model requirements. The
Cassini/Huygens mission will bring a detailed picture of the haze
distribution and properties, which will be a great challenge for our
understanding of these chemical processes.
}},
  doi = {10.1006/icar.2002.6943},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002Icar..159..505L},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2002JGRE..107.5055V,
  author = {{Van den Acker}, E. and {Van Hoolst}, T. and {de Viron}, O. and 
	{Defraigne}, P. and {Forget}, F. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Dehant}, V.
	},
  title = {{Influence of the seasonal winds and the CO$_{2}$ mass exchange between atmosphere and polar caps on Mars' rotation}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Planets)},
  keywords = {Planetary Sciences: Orbital and rotational dynamics, Planetary Sciences: Interiors (8147), Planetary Sciences: Atmospheres-structure and dynamics, Planetary Sciences: Polar regions,},
  year = 2002,
  volume = 107,
  eid = {5055},
  pages = {9-1},
  abstract = {{The Martian atmosphere and the CO$_{2}$ polar ice caps exchange
mass. This exchange, together with the atmospheric response to solar
heating, induces variations of the rotation of Mars. Using the angular
momentum budget equation of the system solid-Mars-atmosphere-polar ice
caps, the variations of Mars' rotation can be deduced from the
variations of the angular momentum of the superficial layer; this later
is associated with the winds, that is, the motion term, and with the
mass redistribution, that is, the matter term. For the ``mean'' Martian
atmosphere, without global dust storms, total amplitudes of 10 cm on the
surface are obtained for both the annual and semiannual polar motion
excited by the atmosphere and ice caps. The atmospheric pressure
variations are the dominant contribution to these amplitudes.
Length-of-day (lod) variations have amplitudes of 0.253 ms for the
annual signal and of 0.246 ms for the semiannual signal. The lod
variations are mainly associated with changes in the atmospheric
contribution to the mass term, partly compensated by the polar ice cap
contribution. We computed lod variations and polar motion for three
scenarios having different atmospheric dust contents. The differences
between the three sets of results for lod variations are about one order
of magnitude larger than the expected accuracy of the NEtlander
Ionosphere and Geodesy Experiment (NEIGE) for lod. It will thus be
possible to constrain the global atmospheric circulation models from the
NEIGE measurements.
}},
  doi = {10.1029/2000JE001539},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JGRE..107.5055V},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2002Sci...295..110C,
  author = {{Costard}, F. and {Forget}, F. and {Mangold}, N. and {Peulvast}, J.~P.
	},
  title = {{Formation of Recent Martian Debris Flows by Melting of Near-Surface Ground Ice at High Obliquity}},
  journal = {Science},
  year = 2002,
  volume = 295,
  pages = {110-113},
  abstract = {{The observation of small gullies associated with recent surface runoff
on Mars has renewed the question of liquid water stability at the
surface of Mars. The gullies could be formed by groundwater seepage from
underground aquifers; however, observations of gullies originating from
isolated peaks and dune crests question this scenario. We show that
these landforms may result from the melting of water ice in the top few
meters of the martian subsurface at high obliquity. Our conclusions are
based on the analogy between the martian gullies and terrestrial debris
flows observed in Greenland and numerical simulations that show that
above-freezing temperatures can occur at high obliquities in the near
surface of Mars, and that such temperatures are only predicted at
latitudes and for slope orientations corresponding to where the gullies
have been observed on Mars.
}},
  doi = {10.1126/science.295.5552.110},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002Sci...295..110C},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}
@article{2002AdSpR..29..175M,
  author = {{Markiewicz}, W.~J. and {Keller}, H.~U. and {Thomas}, N. and 
	{Titov}, D. and {Forget}, F.},
  title = {{Optical properties of the Martian aerosols in the visible spectral range}},
  journal = {Advances in Space Research},
  year = 2002,
  volume = 29,
  pages = {175-181},
  abstract = {{Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) obtained data of sky brightness as a
function of the scattering angle, wavelength, time of day and Sol. This
data set is fitted with model calculations to extract the size
distribution, shape and the refractive index of the aerosols suspended
in the atmosphere. The inferred optical parameters are discussed in
context of diurnal variations and compared to those derived from Viking
Landers cameras and Phobos KRFM radiometer data. The effects of the
scattering and absorption of the solar radiation by the atmospheric
aerosols are discussed in terms of their influence on the
spectrophotometry of the Martian surface.
}},
  doi = {10.1016/S0273-1177(01)00567-1},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AdSpR..29..175M},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
}