@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.94}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c year=2004 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc pub2004.txt -ob pub2004.bib}}
  author = {{Hourdin}, F. and {Lebonnois}, S. and {Luz}, D. and {Rannou}, P.
  title = {{Titan's stratospheric composition driven by condensation and dynamics}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Planets)},
  keywords = {Planetology: Fluid Planets: Atmospheres-structure and dynamics, Planetology: Fluid Planets: Atmospheres-composition and chemistry, Planetology: Solar System Objects: Saturnian satellites},
  year = 2004,
  volume = 109,
  number = e18,
  eid = {E12005},
  pages = {E12005},
  abstract = {{Atmospheric transport of chemical compounds and organic haze in the
stratosphere of Titan is investigated with an axisymmetric general
circulation model. It has been shown previously that the meridional
circulation, dominated by global Hadley cells, is responsible both for
the creation of an intense stratospheric zonal flow and for the
accumulation of chemical compounds and haze in high latitudes. The
modified composition in turn intensifies the meridional circulation and
equator-to-pole thermal contrasts. This paper analyzes in detail the
transport processes responsible for the observed vertical and
latitudinal variations of atmospheric composition. It is shown that the
competition between rapid sinking of air from the upper stratosphere in
the winter polar vortex and latitudinal mixing by barotropic planetary
waves (parameterized in the model) controls the vertical gradient of
chemical compounds. The magnitude of polar enrichment (of a factor 1.4
to 20 depending on the particular species) with respect to low latitudes
is mostly controlled by the way the meridional advection increases the
concentrations of chemical compounds in the clean air which is rising
from the troposphere, where most of the chemical compounds are removed
by condensation (the temperature at the tropopause being close to 70 K).
The agreement between the observed and simulated contrasts provides an
indirect but strong validation of the simulated dynamics, thus
confirming the explanation put forward for atmospheric superrotation. It
is shown also that by measuring the atmospheric composition, the
Cassini-Huygens mission will provide a strong constraint about Titan's
atmospheric circulation.
  doi = {10.1029/2004JE002282},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{B{\"o}ttger}, H.~M. and {Lewis}, S.~R. and {Read}, P.~L. and 
	{Forget}, F.},
  title = {{The effect of a global dust storm on simulations of the Martian water cycle}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Land/atmosphere interactions, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Numerical modeling and data assimilation, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Planetary meteorology (5445, 5739), Planetology: Solar System Objects: Mars},
  year = 2004,
  volume = 31,
  eid = {L22702},
  pages = {L22702},
  abstract = {{Recent Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES)
observations have shown the effects of a global dust storm on the water
cycle on Mars. Simulations using a Mars General Circulation Model were
conducted to assess the influence of an arbitrary global dust storm on
the modelled water cycle. Further, the effects of an adsorbing regolith
during the dust storm were examined. Both with an active and a passive
regolith the water cycle is substantially affected during the course of
the dust storm, but returns to ambient conditions soon after the storm
has abated. Differences between the simulations do exist, especially in
the southern hemisphere during summer. When comparing the simulations
with observations both the active and passive regolith simulations fail
to fully replicate the general trends observed by TES. However, the
actions of an adsorbing regolith appear to result in a water cycle more
closely resembling the observations.
  doi = {10.1029/2004GL021137},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Levrard}, B. and {Forget}, F. and {Montmessin}, F. and {Laskar}, J.
  title = {{Recent ice-rich deposits formed at high latitudes on Mars by sublimation of unstable equatorial ice during low obliquity}},
  journal = {\nat},
  year = 2004,
  volume = 431,
  pages = {1072-1075},
  abstract = {{Observations from the gamma-ray spectrometer instrument suite on the
Mars Odyssey spacecraft have been interpreted as indicating the presence
of vast reservoirs of near-surface ice in high latitudes of both martian
hemispheres. Ice concentrations are estimated to range from 70 per cent
at 60{\deg} latitude to 100 per cent near the poles, possibly overlain by
a few centimetres of ice-free material in most places. This result is
supported by morphological evidence of metres-thick layered deposits
that are rich in water-ice and periglacial-like features found only at
high latitudes. Diffusive exchange of water between the pore space of
the regolith and the atmosphere has been proposed to explain this
distribution, but such a degree of concentration is difficult to
accommodate with such processes. Alternatively, there are suggestions
that ice-rich deposits form by transport of ice from polar reservoirs
and direct redeposition in high latitudes during periods of higher
obliquity, but these results have been difficult to reproduce with other
models. Here we propose instead that, during periods of low obliquity
(less than 25{\deg}), high-latitude ice deposits form in both hemispheres
by direct deposition of ice, as a result of sublimation from an
equatorial ice reservoir that formed earlier, during a prolonged
high-obliquity excursion. Using the ice accumulation rates estimated
from global climate model simulations we show that, over the past ten
million years, large variations of Mars' obliquity have allowed the
formation of such metres-thick, sedimentary layered deposits in high
latitude and polar regions.
  doi = {10.1038/nature03055},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Montmessin}, F. and {Forget}, F. and {Rannou}, P. and {Cabane}, M. and 
	{Haberle}, R.~M.},
  title = {{Origin and role of water ice clouds in the Martian water cycle as inferred from a general circulation model}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Planets)},
  keywords = {Planetology: Solar System Objects: Mars, Planetology: Solid Surface Planets: Meteorology (3346), Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Theoretical modeling, Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Cloud physics and chemistry},
  year = 2004,
  volume = 109,
  number = e18,
  eid = {E10004},
  pages = {E10004},
  abstract = {{In this paper, we present the results obtained by the general
circulation model developed at the Laboratoire de
Météorologie Dynamique which has been used to simulate the
Martian hydrological cycle. Our model, which employs a simplified cloud
scheme, reproduces the observed Martian water cycle with unprecedented
agreement. The modeled seasonal evolution of cloudiness, which also
compares well with data, is described in terms of the meteorological
phenomena that control the Martian cloud distribution. Whereas cloud
formation in the tropical region results from seasonal changes in the
overturning circulation, Polar Hood clouds are mostly driven by
variations of atmospheric wave activity. A sensitivity study allows us
to quantify the effects of the transport of water ice clouds on the
seasonal evolution of the water cycle. The residence time of cloud
particles is long enough to allow cloud advection over great distances
(typically thousands of kilometers). Despite the relatively low
proportion of clouds (\~{}10\%) in the total atmospheric inventory of water,
their ability to be transported over large distances generally acts at
the expense of the north polar cap and generates a water cycle globally
wetter by a factor of 2 than a cycle produced by a model neglecting
cloud transport. Around aphelion season, clouds modulate the north to
south migration of water in a significant fashion and participate just
as much as vapor in the cross-equatorial transport of total water. Most
of the year, atmospheric waves generate an equatorward motion of water
ice clouds near the polar vortex boundaries, partially balancing the
opposite poleward flux of water vapor. The combination of both effects
delays the return of water to the north polar cap and allows water to
build up in the Martian tropics.
  doi = {10.1029/2004JE002284},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Capderou}, M. and {Forget}, F.},
  title = {{Optimal orbits for Mars atmosphere remote sensing}},
  journal = {\planss},
  keywords = {Satellite around Mars, Mars atmosphere, Orbitography, Remote sensing},
  year = 2004,
  volume = 52,
  pages = {789-798},
  abstract = {{Most of the spacecrafts currently around Mars (or planned to reach Mars
in the near future) use Sun-synchronous or near-polar orbits. Such
orbits offer a very poor sampling of the diurnal cycle. Yet, sampling
the diurnal cycle is of key importance to study Mars meteorology and
climate. A comprehensive remote sensing data set should have been
obtained by the end of the MRO mission, launched in 2005. For later
windows, time-varying phenomena should be given the highest priority for
remote sensing investigations. We present possible orbits for such
missions which provide a rich spatial and temporal sampling with a
relatively short repeat cycle (50 sols). After computation and
determination of these orbits, said ``optimal orbits'', we illustrate our
results by tables of sampling and comparison with other orbits.
  doi = {10.1016/j.pss.2004.03.006},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Mangold}, N. and {Maurice}, S. and {Feldman}, W.~C. and {Costard}, F. and 
	{Forget}, F.},
  title = {{Spatial relationships between patterned ground and ground ice detected by the Neutron Spectrometer on Mars}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Planets)},
  keywords = {Planetology: Solar System Objects: Mars, Hydrology: Frozen ground, Hydrology: Geomorphology (1625), Planetology: Solid Surface Planets: Surface materials and properties, Planetology: Solid Surface Planets: Polar regions},
  year = 2004,
  volume = 109,
  eid = {E08001},
  pages = {E08001},
  abstract = {{Patterned grounds, like polygonal features, are the signature of
climatic effects in periglacial regions on Earth. Identifying similar
features on Mars is important for an understanding of the past Martian
climate. In this study we mapped fresh patterned landforms from the
systematic analysis of Mars Orbiter Camera high-resolution images. We
show that most of them are distributed at latitudes poleward of
+/-55{\deg}, making a climatic control likely. This distribution
correlates to the distribution of ground ice detected by the Neutron
Spectrometer aboard Mars Odyssey. This correlation is likely the
consequence of the Neutron Spectrometer detecting ice no deeper than
about 1 m. Patterned ground formation requires ice in this range of
depth because these features are triggered by the propagation of a
thermal wave that is driven by seasonal or diurnal changes in
insolation, which affect the temperature in the uppermost ground layers.
Sublimation seems to play a role in the shaping of many of the small
patterns observed at latitudes between 55{\deg} and 70{\deg}. No
widespread polygonal features are correlated to the equatorial regions
where hydrogen is detected by the Neutron Spectrometer.
  doi = {10.1029/2004JE002235},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Encrenaz}, T. and {Bézard}, B. and {Greathouse}, T.~K. and 
	{Richter}, M.~J. and {Lacy}, J.~H. and {Atreya}, S.~K. and {Wong}, A.~S. and 
	{Lebonnois}, S. and {Lefèvre}, F. and {Forget}, F.},
  title = {{Hydrogen peroxide on Mars: evidence for spatial and seasonal variations}},
  journal = {\icarus},
  keywords = {Mars, atmosphere, composition, Infrared observations, Photochemistry},
  year = 2004,
  volume = 170,
  pages = {424-429},
  abstract = {{Hydrogen peroxide (H $_{2}$O $_{2}$) has been suggested as a
possible oxidizer of the martian surface. Photochemical models predict a
mean column density in the range of 10 $^{15}$-10 $^{16}$ cm
$^{-2}$. However, a stringent upper limit of the H $_{2}$O
$_{2}$ abundance on Mars (9{\times}10 $^{14}$ cm
$^{-2}$) was derived in February 2001 from ground-based infrared
spectroscopy, at a time corresponding to a maximum water vapor abundance
in the northern summer (30 pr. {$\mu$}m, Ls=112{\deg}). Here we report the
detection of H $_{2}$O $_{2}$ on Mars in June 2003, and its
mapping over the martian disk using the same technique, during the
southern spring ( Ls=206{\deg}) when the global water vapor abundance was
{\tilde}10 pr. {$\mu$}m. The spatial distribution of H $_{2}$O
$_{2}$ shows a maximum in the morning around the sub-solar
latitude. The mean H $_{2}$O $_{2}$ column density
(6{\times}10 $^{15}$ cm $^{-2}$) is significantly greater
than our previous upper limit, pointing to seasonal variations. Our new
result is globally consistent with the predictions of photochemical
models, and also with submillimeter ground-based measurements obtained
in September 2003 ( Ls=254{\deg}), averaged over the martian disk (Clancy
et al., 2004, Icarus 168, 116-121).
  doi = {10.1016/j.icarus.2004.05.008},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Lefèvre}, F. and {Lebonnois}, S. and {Montmessin}, F. and 
	{Forget}, F.},
  title = {{Three-dimensional modeling of ozone on Mars}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Planets)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Middle atmosphere-constituent transport and chemistry (3334), Planetology: Solid Surface Planets: Atmospheres-composition and chemistry, Planetology: Solar System Objects: Mars},
  year = 2004,
  volume = 109,
  eid = {E07004},
  pages = {E07004},
  abstract = {{We present the first three-dimensional model simulations of ozone on
Mars. The model couples a state-of-the-art gas-phase photochemical
package to the general circulation model developed at Laboratoire de
Météorologie Dynamique (LMD). The results do not
contradict the classical picture of a global anticorrelation between the
ozone (O$_{3}$) and water vapor columns. However, the quantitative
approach shows significant departures from this relationship, related to
substantial orbital variations in the O$_{3}$ vertical
distribution. Over the period L$_{s}$ = 180{\deg}-330{\deg},
low-latitude to midlatitude O$_{3}$ is essentially confined below
20 km, has a weak diurnal cycle, and is largely modulated by topography.
During the rest of the year (L$_{s}$ = 330{\deg}-180{\deg}) the
model predicts the formation of an O$_{3}$ layer at 25-70 km
altitude, characterized by nighttime densities about one order of
magnitude larger than during the day. Throughout the year, high-latitude
O$_{3}$ peaks near the surface and reaches maximum integrated
amounts (\~{}40 {$\mu$}m-atm) in the winter polar vortex, with considerable
(30 to 50\%) dynamically induced day-to-day variations. The most
stringent comparison to date with O$_{3}$ observational data
reveals contrasted results. A good quantitative agreement is found in
the postperihelion period (L$_{s}$ = 290{\deg}-10{\deg}), but the
model fails to reproduce O$_{3}$ columns as large as those
measured near aphelion (L$_{s}$ = 61{\deg}-67{\deg}). Current
uncertainties in absorption cross sections and gas-phase kinetics data
do not seem to provide credible explanations to explain this
discrepancy, which may suggest the existence of heterogeneous processes.
  doi = {10.1029/2004JE002268},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Bibring}, J.-P. and {Langevin}, Y. and {Poulet}, F. and {Gendrin}, A. and 
	{Gondet}, B. and {Berthé}, M. and {Soufflot}, A. and {Drossart}, P. and 
	{Combes}, M. and {Bellucci}, G. and {Moroz}, V. and {Mangold}, N. and 
	{Schmitt}, B. and {OMEGA Team} and {Erard}, S. and {Forni}, O. and 
	{Manaud}, N. and {Poulleau}, G. and {Encrenaz}, T. and {Fouchet}, T. and 
	{Melchiorri}, R. and {Altieri}, F. and {Formisano}, V. and {Bonello}, G. and 
	{Fonti}, S. and {Capaccioni}, F. and {Cerroni}, P. and {Coradini}, A. and 
	{Kottsov}, V. and {Ignatiev}, N. and {Titov}, D. and {Zasova}, L. and 
	{Pinet}, P. and {Sotin}, C. and {Hauber}, E. and {Hoffman}, H. and 
	{Jaumann}, R. and {Keller}, U. and {Arvidson}, R. and {Mustard}, J. and 
	{Duxbury}, T. and {Forget}, F.},
  title = {{Perennial water ice identified in the south polar cap of Mars}},
  journal = {\nat},
  year = 2004,
  volume = 428,
  pages = {627-630},
  abstract = {{The inventory of water and carbon dioxide reservoirs on Mars are
important clues for understanding the geological, climatic and
potentially exobiological evolution of the planet. From the early
mapping observation of the permanent ice caps on the martian poles, the
northern cap was believed to be mainly composed of water ice, whereas
the southern cap was thought to be constituted of carbon dioxide ice.
However, recent missions (NASA missions Mars Global Surveyor and
Odyssey) have revealed surface structures, altimetry profiles,
underlying buried hydrogen, and temperatures of the south polar regions
that are thermodynamically consistent with a mixture of surface water
ice and carbon dioxide. Here we present the first direct identification
and mapping of both carbon dioxide and water ice in the martian high
southern latitudes, at a resolution of 2km, during the local summer,
when the extent of the polar ice is at its minimum. We observe that this
south polar cap contains perennial water ice in extended areas: as a
small admixture to carbon dioxide in the bright regions; associated with
dust, without carbon dioxide, at the edges of this bright cap; and,
unexpectedly, in large areas tens of kilometres away from the bright
  doi = {10.1038/nature02461},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Angelats i Coll}, M. and {Forget}, F. and {L{\'o}pez-Valverde}, M.~A. and 
	{Read}, P.~L. and {Lewis}, S.~R.},
  title = {{Upper atmosphere of Mars up to 120 km: Mars Global Surveyor accelerometer data analysis with the LMD general circulation model}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Planets)},
  keywords = {Planetary Sciences: Atmospheres-structure and dynamics, Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Waves and tides, Planetology: Solar System Objects: Mars},
  year = 2004,
  volume = 109,
  eid = {E01011},
  pages = {E01011},
  abstract = {{Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) aerobraking accelerometer density
measurements are analyzed with the use of the general circulation model
(GCM) at the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD).
MGS constant altitude density data are used, obtaining longitudinal
wavelike structures at fixed local times which appear to be dominated by
low zonal wave number harmonics. Comparisons with simulated data for
different seasons and latitudinal bands at constant altitude are
performed. Excellent agreement is obtained between the simulated and
observational data for low latitudes, with accuracy in both mean and
zonal structure. Higher latitudes show a reduction in agreement between
GCM results and MGS data. Comparisons that result in good agreement with
the observational data allow for the study of wave composition in the
MGS data. In particular, the excellent agreement between the simulations
and the data obtained at 115 km during areocentric longitude Ls \~{}
65{\deg} allows the extraction of the major contributors to the
signature, with the eastward propagating diurnal waves of wave numbers
one to three being the major players. Significant contributions are also
obtained for eastward propagating semidiurnal waves of wave numbers two,
three, and five and diurnal wave number five. A sensitivity study is
performed to delineate the effects of the near-IR tidal forcing of the
upper atmosphere on the wave content at those heights. Simulations
without this forcing yield reduced amplitudes for diurnal eastward
propagating waves two and three along with a more latitudinally
symmetric response for these two components as well as for diurnal
eastward propagating wave number one.
  doi = {10.1029/2003JE002163},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Chassefière}, E. and {Bertaux}, J.-L. and {Berthelier}, J.-J. and 
	{Cabane}, M. and {Ciarletti}, V. and {Durry}, G. and {Forget}, F. and 
	{Hamelin}, M. and {Leblanc}, F. and {Menvielle}, M. and {Gerasimov}, M. and 
	{Korablev}, O. and {Linkin}, S. and {Managadze}, G. and {Jambon}, A. and 
	{Manhès}, G. and {Lognonné}, P. and {Agrinier}, P. and 
	{Cartigny}, P. and {Giardini}, D. and {Pike}, T. and {Kofman}, W. and 
	{Herique}, A. and {Coll}, P. and {Person}, A. and {Costard}, F. and 
	{Sarda}, P. and {Paillou}, P. and {Chaussidon}, M. and {Marty}, B. and 
	{Robert}, F. and {Maurice}, S. and {Blanc}, M. and {d'Uston}, C. and 
	{Sabroux}, J.-C. and {Pineau}, J.-F. and {Rochette}, P.},
  title = {{MEP (Mars Environment Package): toward a package for studying environmental conditions at the surface of Mars from future lander/rover missions}},
  journal = {Advances in Space Research},
  year = 2004,
  volume = 34,
  pages = {1702-1709},
  abstract = {{In view to prepare Mars human exploration, it is necessary to promote
and lead, at the international level, a highly interdisciplinary
program, involving specialists of geochemistry, geophysics, atmospheric
science, space weather, and biology. The goal of this program will be to
elaborate concepts of individual instruments, then of integrated
instrumental packages, able to collect exhaustive data sets of
environmental parameters from future landers and rovers of Mars, and to
favour the conditions of their implementation. Such a program is one of
the most urgent need for preparing human exploration, in order to
develop mitigation strategies aimed at ensuring the safety of human
explorers, and minimizing risk for surface operations. A few main areas
of investigation may be listed: particle and radiation environment,
chemical composition of atmosphere, meteorology, chemical composition of
dust, surface and subsurface material, water in the subsurface, physical
properties of the soil, search for an hypothesized microbial activity,
characterization of radio-electric properties of the Martian ionosphere.
Scientists at the origin of the present paper, already involved at a
high degree of responsibility in several Mars missions, and actively
preparing in situ instrumentation for future landed platforms
(Netlander{\mdash}now cancelled, MSL-09), express their readiness to
participate in both ESA/AURORA and NASA programs of Mars human
exploration. They think that the formation of a Mars Environment working
group at ESA, in the course of the AURORA definition phase, could act
positively in favour of the program, by increasing its scientific
cross-section and making it still more focused on human exploration.
  doi = {10.1016/j.asr.2003.08.078},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Chassefière}, E. and {Nagy}, A. and {Mandea}, M. and {Primdahl}, F. and 
	{Rème}, H. and {Sauvaud}, J.-A. and {Lin}, R. and {Barabash}, S. and 
	{Mitchell}, D. and {Zurbuchen}, T. and {Leblanc}, F. and {Berthelier}, J.-J. and 
	{Waite}, H. and {Young}, D.~T. and {Clarke}, J. and {Parrot}, M. and 
	{Trotignon}, J.-G. and {Bertaux}, J.-L. and {Quèmerais}, E. and 
	{Barlier}, F. and {Szeg{\"o}}, K. and {Szala{\"i}}, S. and {Bougher}, S. and 
	{Forget}, F. and {Lilensten}, J. and {Barriot}, J.-P. and {Chanteur}, G. and 
	{Luhmann}, J. and {Hulot}, G. and {Purucker}, M. and {Breuer}, D. and 
	{Smrekar}, S. and {Jakosky}, B. and {Menvielle}, M. and {Sasaki}, S. and 
	{Acuna}, M. and {Keating}, G. and {Touboul}, P. and {Gérard}, J.-C. and 
	{Rochus}, P. and {Orsini}, S. and {Cerutti-Maori}, G. and {Porteneuve}, J. and 
	{Meftah}, M. and {Malique}, C.},
  title = {{DYNAMO: a Mars upper atmosphere package for investigating solar wind interaction and escape processes, and mapping Martian fields}},
  journal = {Advances in Space Research},
  keywords = {Mars, Upper atmosphere, Escape, Magnetic field, Gravity field},
  year = 2004,
  volume = 33,
  pages = {2228-2235},
  abstract = {{DYNAMO is a small multi-instrument payload aimed at characterizing
current atmospheric escape, which is still poorly constrained, and
improving gravity and magnetic field representations, in order to better
understand the magnetic, geologic and thermal history of Mars. The
internal structure and evolution of Mars is thought to have influenced
climate evolution. The collapse of the primitive magnetosphere early in
Mars history could have enhanced atmospheric escape and favored
transition to the present arid climate. These objectives are achieved by
using a low periapsis orbit. DYNAMO has been proposed in response to the
AO released in February 2002 for instruments to be flown as a
complementary payload onboard the CNES Orbiter to Mars (MO-07), foreseen
to be launched in 2007 in the framework of the French PREMIER Mars
exploration program. MO-07 orbital phase 2b (with an elliptical orbit of
periapsis 170 km), and in a lesser extent 2a, offers an unprecedented
opportunity to investigate by in situ probing the chemical and dynamical
properties of the deep ionosphere, thermosphere, and the interaction
between the atmosphere and the solar wind, and therefore the present
atmospheric escape rate. Ultraviolet remote sensing is an essential
complement to characterize high, tenuous, layers of the atmosphere. One
Martian year of operation, with about 5,000 low passes, should allow
DYNAMO to map in great detail the residual magnetic field, together with
the gravity field. Additional data on the internal structure will be
obtained by mapping the electric conductivity, sinergistically with the
NETLANDER magnetic data. Three options have been recommended by the
International Science and Technical Review Board (ISTRB), who met on
July 1st and 2nd, 2002. One of them is centered on DYNAMO. The final
choice, which should be made before the end of 2002, will depend on
available funding resources at CNES.
  doi = {10.1016/S0273-1177(03)00528-3},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}