@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.94}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c year=2005 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc pub2005.txt -ob pub2005.bib}}
  author = {{Encrenaz}, T. and {Bézard}, B. and {Owen}, T. and {Lebonnois}, S. and 
	{Lefèvre}, F. and {Greathouse}, T. and {Richter}, M. and 
	{Lacy}, J. and {Atreya}, S. and {Wong}, A.~S. and {Forget}, F.
  title = {{Infrared imaging spectroscopy of Mars: H $_{2}$O mapping and determination of CO $_{2}$ isotopic ratios}},
  journal = {\icarus},
  year = 2005,
  volume = 179,
  pages = {43-54},
  abstract = {{High-resolution infrared imaging spectroscopy of Mars has been achieved
at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on June 19-21, 2003,
using the Texas Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph (TEXES). The
areocentric longitude was 206{\deg}. Following the detection and mapping
of hydrogen peroxide H $_{2}$O $_{2}$ [Encrenaz et al.,
2004. Icarus 170, 424-429], we have derived, using the same data set, a
map of the water vapor abundance. The results appear in good overall
agreement with the TES results and with the predictions of the Global
Circulation Model (GCM) developed at the Laboratory of Dynamical
Meteorology (LMD), with a maximum abundance of water vapor of
3{\plusmn}1.5{\times}10(17{\plusmn}9 pr-{$\mu$}m). We have searched for CH
$_{4}$ over the martian disk, but were unable to detect it. Our
upper limits are consistent with earlier reports on the methane
abundance on Mars. Finally, we have obtained new measurements of CO
$_{2}$ isotopic ratios in Mars. As compared to the terrestrial
values, these values are: ( $^{18}$O/ $^{17}$O)[M/E] = 1.03
{\plusmn} 0.09; ( $^{13}$C/ $^{12}$C)[M/E] = 1.00 {\plusmn}
0.11. In conclusion, in contrast with the analysis of Krasnopolsky et
al. [1996. Icarus 124, 553-568], we conclude that the derived martian
isotopic ratios do not show evidence for a departure from their
terrestrial values.
  doi = {10.1016/j.icarus.2005.06.022},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Encrenaz}, T. and {Melchiorri}, R. and {Fouchet}, T. and {Drossart}, P. and 
	{Lellouch}, E. and {Gondet}, B. and {Bibring}, J.-P. and {Langevin}, Y. and 
	{Titov}, D. and {Ignatiev}, N. and {Forget}, F.},
  title = {{A mapping of martian water sublimation during early northern summer using OMEGA/Mars Express}},
  journal = {\aap},
  keywords = {planets and satellites: Mars, infrared: solar system},
  year = 2005,
  volume = 441,
  pages = {L9-L12},
  abstract = {{The OMEGA imaging spectrometer aboard Mars Express has been used to map
the water vapor abundance over the martian surface, from the analysis of
the 2.6 {$\mu$}m band of H2O. As a preliminary result of this study, we
present water vapor maps in the northern hemisphere at the time of the
northern polar cap sublimation (Ls = 94-112 deg). The maps show a mean
H2O mixing ratio of about 2-3{\times} 10$^{-4}$ at a latitude of
40N, and in the range of 5 {\times} 10$^{-4}$-10$^{-3}$ at
60N-80N latitudes. The corresponding mean H2O column densities are about
25 pr-{$\mu$}m at 40N and between 40 and 60 pr-{$\mu$}m at 60N-80N, with
uncertainties of about 30 percent. Our results are in agreement with
previous results by MAWD/Viking and TES/MGS for latitudes up to 60N, but
seem to indicate lower values at high latitude. However they are still
globally consistent in view of our error bars.
  doi = {10.1051/0004-6361:200500171},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Gonz{\'a}lez-Galindo}, F. and {L{\'o}pez-Valverde}, M.~A. and 
	{Angelats i Coll}, M. and {Forget}, F.},
  title = {{Extension of a Martian general circulation model to thermospheric altitudes: UV heating and photochemical models}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Planets)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Planetary atmospheres (5210, 5405, 5704), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Thermosphere: composition and chemistry, Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Thermosphere: energy deposition (3369), Planetary Sciences: Solar System Objects: Mars},
  year = 2005,
  volume = 110,
  eid = {E09008},
  pages = {E09008},
  abstract = {{A fast method to incorporate the UV heating and the photochemistry of
the neutral upper atmosphere of Mars into general circulation models
(GCMs) is presented. On the basis of more detailed one-dimensional (1-D)
models, the scheme we propose makes use of a division of the UV spectrum
in 36 subintervals of 20 nm average width. Photoabsorption coefficients
are computed allowing for overlapping and are tabulated as a function of
suitable column abundances. The photochemistry proposed includes 12
compounds and uses the approximation of photochemical equilibrium for
the three fastest species, OH, O($^{1}$D), and HO$_{2}$. The
behavior of the fast scheme is shown against detailed 1-D calculations.
The resulting acceleration is about a factor 200 in the UV heating,
while in the photochemistry it is about a factor 100 at 120 km and much
larger below. The proposed scheme has already been implemented into the
GCM developed at the Laboratoire de Météorologie
Dynamique-CNRS in Paris (LMD), which therefore becomes the first single
Martian GCM to cover the whole range of altitudes from the planet
surface to the upper thermosphere. We present typical results of the
Martian thermosphere obtained with the present scheme and the LMD-GCM,
in order to illustrate its behavior and stability. In particular, we
show the sensitivity of the Martian upper atmosphere's thermal structure
to the local photochemistry. Comparisons with previous models are also
presented, as first steps in an ongoing validation study, necessarily
extensive for this kind of GCM, which will include more detailed
comparisons with recent and future data from space missions.
  doi = {10.1029/2004JE002312},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{B{\"o}ttger}, H.~M. and {Lewis}, S.~R. and {Read}, P.~L. and 
	{Forget}, F.},
  title = {{The effects of the martian regolith on GCM water cycle simulations}},
  journal = {\icarus},
  year = 2005,
  volume = 177,
  pages = {174-189},
  abstract = {{This paper describes General Circulation Model (GCM) simulations of the
martian water cycle focusing on the effects of an adsorbing regolith. We
describe the 10-layer regolith model used in this study which has been
adapted from the 1-D model developed by Zent, A.P., Haberle, R.M.,
Houben, H.C., Jakosky, B.M. [1993. A coupled subsurface-boundary layer
model of water on Mars. J. Geophys. Res. 98 (E2), 3319-3337, February].
Even with a 30-min timestep and taking into account the effect of
surface water ice, our fully implicit scheme compares well with the
results obtained by Zent, A.P., Haberle, R.M., Houben, H.C., Jakosky,
B.M. [1993. A coupled subsurface-boundary layer model of water on Mars.
J. Geophys. Res. 98 (E2), 3319-3337, February]. This means, however,
that the regolith is not able to reproduce the diurnal variations in
column water vapour abundance of up to a factor of 2-3 as seen in some
observations, with only about 10\% of the atmospheric water vapour column
exchanging with the subsurface on a daily basis. In 3-D simulations we
find that the regolith adsorbs water preferentially in high latitudes.
This is especially true in the northern hemisphere, where perennial
subsurface water ice builds up poleward of 60{\deg} N at depths which are
comparable to the Odyssey observations. Much less ice forms in the
southern high latitudes, which suggests that the water ice currently
present in the martian subsurface is not stable under present conditions
and is slowly subliming and being deposited in the northern hemisphere.
When initialising the model with an Odyssey-like subsurface water ice
distribution the model is capable of forcing the simulated water cycle
from an arbitrary state close to the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal
Emission Spectrometer observations. Without the actions of the adsorbing
regolith the equilibrated water cycle is found to be a factor of 2-4 too
wet. The process by which this occurs is by adsorption of water during
northern hemisphere summer in northern mid and high latitudes where it
remains locked in until northern spring when the seasonal CO
$_{2}$ ice cap retreats. At this time the water diffuses out of
the regolith in response to increased temperature and is returned to the
residual water ice cap by eddie transport.
  doi = {10.1016/j.icarus.2005.02.024},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Millour}, E. and {Labrosse}, G. and {Tric}, E.},
  title = {{Axisymmetric convective states of pure and binary liquids enclosed in a vertical cylinder and boundary conditions' influence thereupon}},
  journal = {Physics of Fluids},
  keywords = {Flows in ducts channels nozzles and conduits, Nonlinearity bifurcation and symmetry breaking, Slip flows and accommodation},
  year = 2005,
  volume = 17,
  number = 4,
  pages = {044102-044102},
  abstract = {{The high Rayleigh number (Ra) axisymmetric convection regimes of Pr =1
pure and (Le =0.1, {$\Psi$} =-0.2) binary liquids are numerically
investigated and compared. The fluids are enclosed in a vertical
cylinder of aspect ratio height/radius=2 and heated from below, with
either no-slip or free-slip kinematic lateral boundary conditions.
Branches of solutions and transitions between states that occur as Ra is
varied up to O(10$^{5}$) are given, along with a description of
the encountered bifurcations. When a free-slip condition is imposed
along the circumference of the cell, pure fluid and binary liquid
stationary flows are found to become identical at high Ra, an often
reported feature. When the lateral boundary condition is set to no-slip,
the high Ra steady flows of pure and binary liquid, although very
similar, undergo different bifurcations. This is related with a locally
quasiquiescent region present in both cases, the stability of which
controls the flow regime in the whole fluid layer. A branch of resulting
oscillatory states thus does not appear in the bifurcation diagram of
the binary liquid.
  doi = {10.1063/1.1863257},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Lebonnois}, S.},
  title = {{Benzene and aerosol production in Titan and Jupiter's atmospheres: a sensitivity study}},
  journal = {\planss},
  year = 2005,
  volume = 53,
  pages = {486-497},
  abstract = {{Benzene has recently been observed in the atmosphere of Jupiter, Saturn
and also Titan. This compound is required as a precursor for larger
aromatic species (PAHs) that may be part of aerosol particles. Several
photochemical models have tried to reproduce the observed quantities of
benzene in the atmospheres of Jupiter (both low- and high-latitudes
regions), Saturn and Titan. In this present work, we have conducted a
sensitivity study of benzene and PAHs formation, using similar
photochemical schemes both for Titan and Jupiter (low-latitudes
conditions). Two different photochemical schemes are used, for which the
modeled composition fairly agrees with observational constraints, both
for Jupiter and Titan. Some disagreements are specific to each
atmospheric case, which may point to needed improvements, especially in
kinetic data involved in the corresponding chemical cycles. The observed
benzene mole fraction in Titan's stratosphere is reproduced by the
model, but in the case of Jupiter, low-latitudes benzene abundance is
only 3\% of the observed column density, which may indicate a possible
influence of latitudinal transport, since abundance of benzene is much
higher in auroral regions. Though, the photochemical scheme of
C$_{6}$ compounds at temperature and pressure conditions of
planetary atmospheres is still very uncertain. Several variations are
therefore done on key reactions in benzene production. These variations
show that benzene abundance is mainly sensitive to reactions that may
affect the propargyl radical. The effect of aerosol production on
hydrocarbons composition is also tested, as well as possible
heterogenous recombination of atomic hydrogen in the case of Titan. PAHs
are a major pathway for aerosol production in both models. The mass
production profiles for aerosols are discussed for both Titan and
Jupiter. Total production mass fluxes are roughly three times the one
expected by observational constraints in both cases. Such comparative
studies are useful to bring more constraints on photochemical models.
  doi = {10.1016/j.pss.2004.11.004},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Urban}, J. and {Dassas}, K. and {Forget}, F. and {Ricaud}, P.
  title = {{Retrieval of vertical constituents and temperature profiles from passive submillimeter wave limb observations of the Martian atmosphere: a feasibility study}},
  journal = {\ao},
  year = 2005,
  volume = 44,
  pages = {2438-2455},
  abstract = {{The investigation of the Martian atmosphere is of key importance for an
understanding of the planets present and past. Passive limb observations
of thermal radiation at submillimeter wavelengths in the 320-350-GHz
range by use of a state-of-the-art satellite receiver on a low Mars
orbit allow important parameters such as the mixing ratios of H2O, HDO,
$^{12}$CO, $^{13}$CO, O3, and H2O2 as well as the thermal
profile to be retrieved with high precision and unprecedented vertical
range and resolution, providing valuable information for better
understanding of the planet's water cycle, atmospheric dynamics, and
photochemistry. The feasibility of these kinds of measurement is
demonstrated by means of model simulations based on realistic
atmospheric, spectroscopic, and instrumental parameters. Temperature can
be retrieved to \~{}90 km with half-scale height vertical resolution from
single-scan measurements of emission lines of the long-lived species
$^{12}$CO and $^{13}$CO. The global water-vapor distribution
can be measured even under dry or wet conditions with good vertical
resolution from the surface to \~{}45 km, and simultaneous observations of
HDO allow useful information on the D/H ratio up to an altitude of \~{}30
km to be derived. The sensitivity of the limb-sounding technique also
permits information on the photochemically important minor species O3
and H2O2 to be obtained. It is shown that spectral averaging may improve
precision, altitude range, and resolution of the retrieved profiles.
Other frequency bands are explored, and the 435-465-GHz range is
suggested as a possible alternative to the 320-350-GHz range.
  doi = {10.1364/AO.44.002438},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Bibring}, J.-P. and {Langevin}, Y. and {Gendrin}, A. and {Gondet}, B. and 
	{Poulet}, F. and {Berthé}, M. and {Soufflot}, A. and {Arvidson}, R. and 
	{Mangold}, N. and {Mustard}, J. and {Drossart}, P. and {OMEGA Team} and 
	{Erard}, S. and {Forni}, O. and {Combes}, M. and {Encrenaz}, T. and 
	{Fouchet}, T. and {Merchiorri}, R. and {Belluci}, G. and {Altieri}, F. and 
	{Formisano}, V. and {Bonello}, G. and {Capaccioni}, F. and {Cerroni}, P. and 
	{Coradini}, A. and {Fonti}, S. and {Kottsov}, V. and {Ignatiev}, N. and 
	{Moroz}, V. and {Titov}, D. and {Zasova}, L. and {Mangold}, M. and 
	{Pinet}, P. and {Douté}, S. and {Schmitt}, B. and {Sotin}, C. and 
	{Hauber}, E. and {Hoffmann}, H. and {Jaumann}, R. and {Keller}, U. and 
	{Duxbury}, T. and {Forget}, F.},
  title = {{Mars Surface Diversity as Revealed by the OMEGA/Mars Express Observations}},
  journal = {Science},
  year = 2005,
  volume = 307,
  pages = {1576-1581},
  abstract = {{The Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces, et
l'Activité (OMEGA) investigation, on board the European Space
Agency Mars Express mission, is mapping the surface composition of Mars
at a 0.3- to 5-kilometer resolution by means of visible-near-infrared
hyperspectral reflectance imagery. The data acquired during the first 9
mineralogy, offering key insights into the evolution of Mars. OMEGA has
identified and mapped mafic iron-bearing silicates of both the northern
and southern crust, localized concentrations of hydrated phyllosilicates
and sulfates but no carbonates, and ices and frosts with a water-ice
composition of the north polar perennial cap, as for the south cap,
covered by a thin carbon dioxide-ice veneer.
  doi = {10.1126/science.1108806},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Montmessin}, F. and {Fouchet}, T. and {Forget}, F.},
  title = {{Modeling the annual cycle of HDO in the Martian atmosphere}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Planets)},
  keywords = {Planetary Sciences: Solar System Objects: Mars, Planetary Sciences: Solid Surface Planets: Atmospheres (0343, 1060), Planetary Sciences: Solid Surface Planets: Composition (1060, 3672), Atmospheric Processes: General circulation (1223)},
  year = 2005,
  volume = 110,
  eid = {E03006},
  pages = {E03006},
  abstract = {{We present the results of the first three-dimensional (3-D) simulation
of the water isotope HDO in the Martian atmosphere. This deuterated
isotope of water has long been used on both Earth and Mars as a proxy to
understand the climatic evolutions of these planets. On Mars, the
current enrichment in deuterium concentration in the atmosphere is
believed to be indirect evidence of a wetter climate in the past. Due to
its vapor pressure being lower than that of H$_{2}$O, HDO gets
fractionated at condensation and therefore concentrates in the Martian
water ice clouds. Our study aims at understanding the latitudinal,
vertical, and temporal variations of this species under current Martian
climate. Our results indicate that the globally averaged D/H ratio in
the Martian atmosphere should vary modestly with season, with changes on
the order of 2\%. Locally, however, this same ratio exhibits large annual
changes (by a factor of 2) in the high-latitude regions. These
fluctuations are controlled by the Polar Hood water ice clouds, within
which HDO gets heavily fractionated. Due to the combined action of
summer clouds above the north polar cap and to the cold-trapping effect
of the south residual cap, the global atmospheric deuterium
concentration is predicted to be more than 15\% lower than the
concentration in the north permanent cap ice. We thus extrapolate by
suggesting that the ``true'' D/H ratio of Martian water may exceed 6.5
(wrt. SMOW), rather than the 5.6 inferred from atmospheric probing. The
globally and annually averaged vertical distribution of HDO exhibits a
mild decline with altitude, a result in significant contrast with
previous 1-D studies. These results will help constrain more accurately
the photochemical models aimed at understanding the observed low
concentration of deuterium at high altitudes and thus the process of
water escape to space.
  doi = {10.1029/2004JE002357},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Angelats i Coll}, M. and {Forget}, F. and {L{\'o}pez-Valverde}, M.~A. and 
	{Gonz{\'a}lez-Galindo}, F.},
  title = {{The first Mars thermospheric general circulation model: The Martian atmosphere from the ground to 240 km}},
  journal = {\grl},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Planetary atmospheres (5210, 5405, 5704), Atmospheric Processes: General circulation (1223), Atmospheric Processes: Thermospheric dynamics (0358), Atmospheric Processes: Planetary meteorology (5445, 5739)},
  year = 2005,
  volume = 32,
  eid = {L04201},
  pages = {L04201},
  abstract = {{The Martian general circulation model (GCM) at the Laboratoire de
Météorologie Dynamique (LMD) has been extended up to
approximately 240 km and it is now the first GCM to fully simulate the
Martian atmosphere from the ground up to the thermosphere. In this paper
we summarize the processes that have been added and give a first simple
study of the effects of parameterized orographic gravity waves on the
zonal mean fields. This first study clearly emphasizes the coupling
between the different atmospheric regions and notes the importance of
having fully coupled models to simulate the atmosphere of Mars.
  doi = {10.1029/2004GL021368},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Bertaux}, J.-L. and {Leblanc}, F. and {Perrier}, S. and {Quemerais}, E. and 
	{Korablev}, O. and {Dimarellis}, E. and {Reberac}, A. and {Forget}, F. and 
	{Simon}, P.~C. and {Stern}, S.~A. and {Sandel}, B.},
  title = {{Nightglow in the Upper Atmosphere of Mars and Implications for Atmospheric Transport}},
  journal = {Science},
  year = 2005,
  volume = 307,
  pages = {566-569},
  abstract = {{We detected light emissions in the nightside martian atmosphere with the
SPICAM (spectroscopy for the investigation of the characteristics of the
atmosphere of Mars) ultraviolet (UV) spectrometer on board the Mars
Express. The UV spectrum of this nightglow is composed of hydrogen Lyman
{$\alpha$} emission (121.6 nanometers) and the {$\gamma$} and {$\delta$} bands of
nitric oxide (NO) (190 to 270 nanometers) produced when N and O atoms
combine to produce the NO molecule. N and O atoms are produced by
extreme UV photodissociation of O$_{2}$, CO$_{2}$, and
N$_{2}$ in the dayside upper atmosphere and transported to the
night side. The NO emission is brightest in the winter south polar night
because of continuous downward transport of air in this region at night
during winter and because of freezing at ground level.
  doi = {10.1126/science.1106957},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Rannou}, P. and {Lebonnois}, S. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Luz}, D.
  title = {{Titan atmosphere database}},
  journal = {Advances in Space Research},
  year = 2005,
  volume = 36,
  pages = {2194-2198},
  abstract = {{We have developed in the last decade a two-dimensional version of the
Titan global circulation model LMDZ. This model accounts for multiple
coupling occuring on Titan between dynamics, haze, chemistry and
radiative transfer. It was successful at explaining many observed
features related to atmosphere state (wind, temperature), haze structure
and chemical species distributions, recently, an important step in our
knowledge about Titan has been done with Cassini and Huygens visits to
Titan. In this context, we want to make the results of our model
available for the scientific community which is involved in the study of
Titan. Such a tool should be useful to give a global frame (spatial and
time behaviour of physical quantities) for interpreting ground based
telescope observations.
  doi = {10.1016/j.asr.2005.09.041},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Bertaux}, J.-L. and {Korablev}, O. and {Fonteyn}, D. and {Guibert}, S. and 
	{Chassefière}, E. and {Lefèvre}, F. and {Dimarellis}, E. and 
	{Dubois}, J.~P. and {Hauchecorne}, A. and {Cabane}, M. and {Rannou}, P. and 
	{Levasseur-Regourd}, A.~C. and {Cernogora}, G. and {Quémerais}, E. and 
	{Hermans}, C. and {Kockarts}, G. and {Lippens}, C. and {de Maziere}, M. and 
	{Moreau}, D. and {Muller}, C. and {Neefs}, E. and {Simon}, P.~C. and 
	{Forget}, F. and {Hourdin}, F. and {Talagrand}, O. and {Moroz}, V.~I. and 
	{Rodin}, A. and {Sandel}, B. and {Stern}, A.},
  title = {{Global structure and composition of the martian atmosphere with SPICAM on Mars express}},
  journal = {Advances in Space Research},
  year = 2005,
  volume = 35,
  pages = {31-36},
  abstract = {{SPectroscopy for the Investigation of the Characteristics of the
Atmosphere of Mars (SPICAM) Light, a light-weight (4.7 kg) UV-IR
instrument to be flown on Mars Express orbiter, is dedicated to the
study of the atmosphere and ionosphere of Mars. A UV spectrometer
(118-320 nm, resolution 0.8 nm) is dedicated to nadir viewing, limb
viewing and vertical profiling by stellar and solar occultation (3.8
kg). It addresses key issues about ozone, its coupling with
H$_{2}$O, aerosols, atmospheric vertical temperature structure and
ionospheric studies. UV observations of the upper atmosphere will allow
studies of the ionosphere through the emissions of CO, CO$^{+}$,
and CO2+, and its direct interaction with the solar wind. An IR
spectrometer (1.0-1.7 {$\mu$}m, resolution 0.5-1.2 nm) is dedicated
primarily to nadir measurements of H$_{2}$O abundances
simultaneously with ozone measured in the UV, and to vertical profiling
during solar occultation of H$_{2}$O, CO$_{2}$, and
aerosols. The SPICAM Light near-IR sensor employs a pioneering
technology acousto-optical tunable filter (AOTF), leading to a compact
and light design. Overall, SPICAM Light is an ideal candidate for future
orbiter studies of Mars, after Mars Express, in order to study the
interannual variability of martian atmospheric processes. The potential
contribution to a Mars International Reference Atmosphere is clear.
  doi = {10.1016/j.asr.2003.09.055},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}