@comment{{This file has been generated by bib2bib 1.94}}
@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib --quiet -c 'not journal:"Discussions"' -c year=2009 -c $type="ARTICLE" -oc pub2009.txt -ob pub2009.bib}}
  author = {{Eymet}, V. and {Fournier}, R. and {Dufresne}, J.-L. and {Lebonnois}, S. and 
	{Hourdin}, F. and {Bullock}, M.~A.},
  title = {{Net exchange parameterization of thermal infrared radiative transfer in Venus' atmosphere}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Planets)},
  keywords = {Atmospheric Processes: Radiative processes, Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Radiation: transmission and scattering, Global Change: Global climate models (3337, 4928), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Cloud/radiation interaction, Mineral Physics: Optical, infrared, and Raman spectroscopy},
  year = 2009,
  volume = 114,
  number = e13,
  eid = {E11008},
  pages = {E11008},
  abstract = {{Thermal radiation within Venus atmosphere is analyzed in close details.
Prominent features are identified, which are then used to design a
parameterization (a highly simplified and yet accurate enough model) to
be used in General Circulation Models. The analysis is based on a net
exchange formulation, using a set of gaseous and cloud optical data
chosen among available referenced data. The accuracy of the proposed
parameterization methodology is controlled against Monte Carlo
simulations, assuming that the optical data are exact. Then, the
accuracy level corresponding to our present optical data choice is
discussed by comparison with available observations, concentrating on
the most unknown aspects of Venus thermal radiation, namely the deep
atmosphere opacity and the cloud composition and structure.
  doi = {10.1029/2008JE003276},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Billebaud}, F. and {Brillet}, J. and {Lellouch}, E. and {Fouchet}, T. and 
	{Encrenaz}, T. and {Cottini}, V. and {Ignatiev}, N. and {Formisano}, V. and 
	{Giuranna}, M. and {Maturilli}, A. and {Forget}, F.},
  title = {{Observations of CO in the atmosphere of Mars with PFS onboard Mars Express}},
  journal = {\planss},
  year = 2009,
  volume = 57,
  pages = {1446-1457},
  abstract = {{We have analyzed spectra of CO recorded with the instrument PFS onboard
Mars Express in the (1-0) 4.7{$\mu$}m band. The dataset we used ranges in
time from January until June 2004 ( L$_{S}$=331$^{o}$.17
until L$_{S}$=51$^{o}$.61; end of Mars Year 26,
beginning of Mars Year 27). The aim of this work was to determine the
amplitude of the CO mixing ratio departures from the mean globally
averaged value currently admitted ( 8{\plusmn}3{\times}10$^{-4}$)
[Kaplan, L.D., Connes, J., Connes, P., 1969. Carbon monoxide in the
martian atmosphere. Astron. J. 157, L187-L192] as a function of season,
local time and location on the planet. We therefore processed the data
from 90 calibrated orbits. The globally averaged CO mixing ratio value
we derive from our dataset, 11.1{\times}10$^{-4}$, is compatible
with the range found by Kaplan et al. [1969. Carbon monoxide in the
martian atmosphere. Astron. J. 157, L187-L192], although somewhat higher
than the ``standard'' value. However, the CO mixing ratio we retrieve
exhibits large variations (roughly between 3{\times}10$^{-4}$ and
18{\times}10$^{-4}$). Such relative variations have been used on a
statistical basis to derive main trends as a function of latitude for
three L$_{S}$ ranges: 331- 360$^{o}$, 0-
30$^{o}$ and 30- 52$^{o}$. For the first
L$_{S}$ range, we seem to have an enhancement of the CO mixing
ratio towards the northern latitudes, probably linked to the
CO$_{2}$ condensation in winter on the north polar cap. The
situation for the two other L$_{S}$ ranges is not so clear, mainly
as we lack data on the southern hemisphere. We roughly agree with the
work of Krasnopolsky [2007. Long-term spectroscopic observations of Mars
using IRTF/CSHELL: mapping of O2 dayglow, CO and search for CH4. Icarus
190, 93-102] for L$_{S}$=331- 360$^{o}$, thus confirming
the effect of seasonal condensation of CO$_{2}$ on the north polar
cap, but we have no agreement for other seasons.
  doi = {10.1016/j.pss.2009.07.004},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Madeleine}, J.-B. and {Forget}, F. and {Head}, J.~W. and {Levrard}, B. and 
	{Montmessin}, F. and {Millour}, E.},
  title = {{Amazonian northern mid-latitude glaciation on Mars: A proposed climate scenario}},
  journal = {\icarus},
  year = 2009,
  volume = 203,
  pages = {390-405},
  abstract = {{Recent geological observations in the northern mid-latitudes of Mars
show evidence for past glacial activity during the late Amazonian,
similar to the integrated glacial landsystems in the Dry Valleys of
Antarctica. The large accumulation of ice (many hundreds of meters)
required to create the observed glacial deposits points to significant
atmospheric precipitation, snow and ice accumulation, and glacial flow.
In order to understand the climate scenario required for these
conditions, we used the LMD (Laboratoire de Météorologie
Dynamique) Mars GCM (General Circulation Model), which is able to
reproduce the present-day water cycle, and to predict past deposition of
ice consistent with geological observations in many cases. Prior to this
analysis, however, significant mid-latitude glaciation had not been
simulated by the model, run under a range of parameters. In this
analysis, we studied the response of the GCM to a wider range of orbital
configurations and water ice reservoirs, and show that during periods of
moderate obliquity ( {$\epsilon$} = 25-35{\deg}) and high dust opacity (
{$\tau$}$_{dust}$ = 1.5-2.5), broad-scale glaciation in the northern
mid-latitudes occurs if water ice deposited on the flanks of the Tharsis
volcanoes at higher obliquity is available for sublimation. We find that
high dust contents of the atmosphere increase its water vapor holding
capacity, thereby moving the saturation region to the northern
mid-latitudes. Precipitation events are then controlled by topographic
forcing of stationary planetary waves and transient weather systems,
producing surface ice distribution and amounts that are consistent with
the geological record. Ice accumulation rates of {\tilde}10 mm yr
$^{-1}$ lead to the formation of a 500-1000 m thick regional ice
sheet that will produce glacial flow patterns consistent with the
geological observations.
  doi = {10.1016/j.icarus.2009.04.037},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Guerlet}, S. and {Fouchet}, T. and {Bézard}, B. and {Simon-Miller}, A.~A. and 
	{Michael Flasar}, F.},
  title = {{Vertical and meridional distribution of ethane, acetylene and propane in Saturn{\rsquo}s stratosphere from CIRS/Cassini limb observations}},
  journal = {\icarus},
  year = 2009,
  volume = 203,
  pages = {214-232},
  abstract = {{Measuring the spatial distribution of chemical compounds in Saturn's
stratosphere is critical to better understand the planet's
photochemistry and dynamics. Here we present an analysis of infrared
spectra in the range 600-1400 cm $^{-1}$ acquired in limb geometry
by the Cassini spacecraft between March 2005 and January 2008. We first
determine the vertical temperature profiles from 3 to 0.01 hPa, at
latitudes ranging from 70{\deg}N to 80{\deg}S. We infer a similar
meridional temperature gradient at 1-2 hPa as in recent previous studies
[Fletcher, L.N., Irwin, P.G.J., Teanby, N.A., Orton, G.S., Parrish,
P.D., de Kok, R., Howett, C., Calcutt, S.B., Bowles, N., Taylor, F.W.,
2007. Icarus 189, 457-478; Howett, C.J.A., Irwin, P.G.J., Teanby, N.A.,
Simon-Miller, A., Calcutt, S.B., Fletcher, L.N., de Kok, R., 2007.
Icarus 190, 556-572]. We then retrieve the vertical profiles of
C$_{2}$H$_{6}$ and C$_{2}$H$_{2}$ from 3 to 0.01
hPa and of C$_{3}$H$_{8}$ around 1 hPa. At 1 hPa, the
meridional variation of C$_{2}$H$_{2}$ is found to follow
the yearly averaged solar insolation, except for a strong equatorial
mole fraction of 8{\times}10$^{-7}$, nearly two times higher than
expected. This enhancement in abundance can be explained by the descent
of hydrocarbon-rich air, with a vertical wind speed at the equator of
0.25{\plusmn}0.1 mm/s at 1 hPa and 0.4{\plusmn}0.15 mm/s at 0.1 hPa. The
ethane distribution is relatively uniform at 1 hPa, with only a moderate
25\% increase from 35{\deg}S to 80{\deg}S. Propane is found to increase
from north to south by a factor of 1.9, suggesting that its lifetime may
be shorter than Saturn's year at 1 hPa. At high altitudes (1 Pa),
C$_{2}$H$_{2}$ and C$_{2}$H$_{6}$ abundances
depart significantly from the photochemical model predictions of Moses
and Greathouse [Moses, J.I., Greathouse, T.K., 2005. J. Geophys. Res.
110, 9007], except at high southern latitudes (62, 70 and 80{\deg}S) and
near the equator. The observed abundances are found strongly depleted in
the 20-40{\deg}S region and enhanced in the 20-30{\deg}N region, the
latter coinciding with the ring's shadow. We favor a dynamical
explanation for these anomalies.
  doi = {10.1016/j.icarus.2009.04.002},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Lefèvre}, F. and {Forget}, F.},
  title = {{Observed variations of methane on Mars unexplained by known atmospheric chemistry and physics}},
  journal = {\nat},
  year = 2009,
  volume = 460,
  pages = {720-723},
  abstract = {{The detection of methane on Mars has revived the possibility of past or
extant life on this planet, despite the fact that an abiogenic origin is
thought to be equally plausible. An intriguing aspect of the recent
observations of methane on Mars is that methane concentrations appear to
be locally enhanced and change with the seasons. However, methane has a
photochemical lifetime of several centuries, and is therefore expected
to have a spatially uniform distribution on the planet. Here we use a
global climate model of Mars with coupled chemistry to examine the
implications of the recently observed variations of Martian methane for
our understanding of the chemistry of methane. We find that
photochemistry as currently understood does not produce measurable
variations in methane concentrations, even in the case of a current,
local and episodic methane release. In contrast, we find that the
condensation-sublimation cycle of Mars{\rsquo} carbon dioxide atmosphere
can generate large-scale methane variations differing from those
observed. In order to reproduce local methane enhancements similar to
those recently reported, we show that an atmospheric lifetime of less
than 200days is necessary, even if a local source of methane is only
active around the time of the observation itself. This implies an
unidentified methane loss process that is 600 times faster than
predicted by standard photochemistry. The existence of such a fast loss
in the Martian atmosphere is difficult to reconcile with the observed
distribution of other trace gas species. In the case of a destruction
mechanism only active at the surface of Mars, destruction of methane
must occur with an even shorter timescale of the order of \~{}1hour to
explain the observations. If recent observations of spatial and temporal
variations of methane are confirmed, this would suggest an
extraordinarily harsh environment for the survival of organics on the
  doi = {10.1038/nature08228},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Gonz{\'a}lez-Galindo}, F. and {Forget}, F. and {L{\'o}pez-Valverde}, M.~A. and 
	{Angelats i Coll}, M.},
  title = {{A ground-to-exosphere Martian general circulation model: 2. Atmosphere during solstice conditions{\mdash}Thermospheric polar warming}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Planets)},
  keywords = {Planetary Sciences: Solid Surface Planets: Atmospheres (0343, 1060), Planetary Sciences: Solar System Objects: Mars, Atmospheric Processes: Thermospheric dynamics (0358), Atmospheric Processes: Tides and planetary waves, Atmospheric Processes: Global climate models (1626, 4928)},
  year = 2009,
  volume = 114,
  eid = {E08004},
  pages = {E08004},
  abstract = {{A ground-to-exosphere Martian general circulation model is applied to
study the thermal and dynamical structure of the upper Martian
atmosphere during solstitial conditions. Special attention is paid to
the reproduction of the thermospheric polar warming observed by Mars
Odyssey during southern hemisphere (SH) summer solstice. The intensity
and latitudinal distribution of this polar warming are successfully
reproduced by the model. The heating balance and the dynamical structure
of the upper atmosphere are studied. It is shown that a strong
interhemispheric transport produces a convergence and descent of air
over the winter pole, producing an adiabatic heating and a polar
warming. This structure confirms previous results made by other models.
The most novel aspect of this study is a sensitivity study showing the
importance of the tides excited in situ in the upper atmosphere. These
tides are critical to the simulated thermal and dynamical structure and
remain key components of the interhemispheric transport mechanism
responsible for the thermospheric polar warming. The day-night
temperature differences created by these in situ tides produce a
day-night transport that reinforces the summer-to-winter circulation and
the descent of air over the pole, becoming an essential factor for this
thermospheric polar warming. The effect of upward propagating
nonmigrating tides is also studied.
  doi = {10.1029/2008JE003277},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Moreno}, R. and {Lellouch}, E. and {Forget}, F. and {Encrenaz}, T. and 
	{Guilloteau}, S. and {Millour}, E.},
  title = {{Wind measurements in Mars' middle atmosphere: IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometric CO observations}},
  journal = {\icarus},
  year = 2009,
  volume = 201,
  pages = {549-563},
  abstract = {{The IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer has been used to map the CO(1-0)
rotational line in Mars' middle atmosphere. Absolute winds and thermal
profiles were retrieved during the 1999, 2001, 2003 and 2005 planet's
oppositions. The observations sampled various seasons ( L=143, 196, 262,
317 and 322), and different dust situations (clear, global storm,
regional storm). The absolute winds were derived by measuring directly
the Doppler lineshifts. The main zonal circulation near 50 km is
dominated by strong retrograde winds, with typical velocities of 70-170
m/s, strongly varying seasonally, latitudinally, and longitudinally (in
particular between morning and evening). Comparison of the retrieved
temperature with a general circulation model indicates that the model
often underestimates the temperatures in the middle (20-50 km)
atmosphere, and overestimates them above 50 km.
  doi = {10.1016/j.icarus.2009.01.027},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{M{\"a}{\"a}tt{\"a}nen}, A. and {Fouchet}, T. and {Forni}, O. and 
	{Forget}, F. and {Savij{\"a}rvi}, H. and {Gondet}, B. and {Melchiorri}, R. and 
	{Langevin}, Y. and {Formisano}, V. and {Giuranna}, M. and {Bibring}, J.-P.
  title = {{A study of the properties of a local dust storm with Mars Express OMEGA and PFS data}},
  journal = {\icarus},
  year = 2009,
  volume = 201,
  pages = {504-516},
  abstract = {{We present observations of a local dust storm performed by the OMEGA and
PFS instruments aboard Mars Express. OMEGA observations are used to
retrieve the dust single-scattering albedo in the spectral range 0.4-4.0
{$\mu$}m. The single-scattering albedo shows fairly constant values between
0.6 and 2.6 {$\mu$}m, and a sharp decrease at wavelengths shorter than 0.6
{$\mu$}m, in agreement with previous studies. It presents a small
absorption feature due to ferric oxide at 0.9 {$\mu$}m, and a strong
absorption feature due to hydrated minerals between 2.7 and 3.6 {$\mu$}m.
We use a statistical method, the Independent Component Analysis, to
determine that the dust spectral signature is decoupled from the surface
albedo, proving that the retrieval of the single-scattering albedo is
reliable, and we map the dust optical thickness with a conventional
radiative transfer model. The effect of the dust storm on the
atmospheric thermal structure is measured using PFS observations. We
also simulate the thermal impact of the dust storm using a
one-dimensional atmospheric model. A comparison of the retrieved and
modeled temperature structures suggests that the dust in the storm
should be confined to the 1-2 lowest scale heights of the atmosphere.
However, the observed OMEGA reflectance in the CO $_{2}$
absorption bands does not support this suggestion.
  doi = {10.1016/j.icarus.2009.01.024},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Melchiorri}, R. and {Encrenaz}, T. and {Drossart}, P. and {Fouchet}, T. and 
	{Forget}, F. and {Titov}, D. and {Maltagliati}, L. and {Altieri}, F. and 
	{Vincendon}, M. and {Langevin}, Y. and {Bibring}, J.~P.},
  title = {{OMEGA/Mars Express: South Pole Region, water vapor daily variability}},
  journal = {\icarus},
  year = 2009,
  volume = 201,
  pages = {102-112},
  abstract = {{Polar regions on Mars are the most suitable places to observe water
vapor daily variability because in any observation crossing the Pole we
can observe very different local time and because the poles are
considered to be the main permanent and seasonal water reservoir of the
planet. We report on a daily variability of water vapor in the South
Pole Region (SPR), observed by OMEGA/Mars Express during the south
spring-summer period ( Ls{\tilde}250{\deg}-270{\deg}) outside the CO
$_{2}$ ice cap, that has never been observed before by other
instruments. We have been able to estimate an increase of few
precipitable microns during the day. A possible scenario includes the
presence of regolith, or another component that could gather water from
the atmosphere, adsorbing the water into the surface during the night
time and desorbing it as soon as the Sun reaches sufficient height to
heat the ground. This hypothesis is even more plausible considering the
presence of observed local enhancements in the morning sections
associated with the illumination of the Sun and the total absence in the
data for water ice.
  doi = {10.1016/j.icarus.2008.12.018},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Gonz{\'a}lez-Galindo}, F. and {Forget}, F. and {L{\'o}pez-Valverde}, M.~A. and 
	{Angelats i Coll}, M. and {Millour}, E.},
  title = {{A ground-to-exosphere Martian general circulation model: 1. Seasonal, diurnal, and solar cycle variation of thermospheric temperatures}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Planets)},
  keywords = {Planetary Sciences: Solid Surface Planets: Atmospheres (0343, 1060), Planetary Sciences: Solar System Objects: Mars, Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Thermosphere: energy deposition (3369), Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Thermosphere: composition and chemistry},
  year = 2009,
  volume = 114,
  eid = {E04001},
  pages = {E04001},
  abstract = {{We present the extension to the thermosphere of a Martian general
circulation model, the first able to self-consistently study the whole
Martian atmosphere from the surface to the exosphere. We describe the
parameterizations developed to include physical processes important for
thermospheric altitudes. The results of a simulation covering 1 full
Martian year are presented, focusing on the seasonal, diurnal, and
day-to-day variability of the temperatures in the exobase region. The
seasonal variation of the zonal mean temperatures in the upper
atmosphere is of about 100 K, mostly due to the variation of the solar
forcing. The temperature of the mesopause ranges between 115 and 130 K,
with little seasonal and day-night variations. Its pressure level
undergoes significant seasonal and day-night variations. Comparisons
with SPICAM observations show that the modeled mesopause is too low and
too warm. A similar study for the homopause shows that it is located
higher in the atmosphere during solstices, owing to reinforced mixing by
a stronger circulation. Important day-night temperature differences are
found in the thermosphere, ranging from about 60 K at aphelion to 110 K
at perihelion. This diurnal cycle is slightly perturbed by the
day-to-day variations of temperature, dominated by waves with periods of
2 to 6 sols and amplitude of 30 K. The model reproduces the observed
solar cycle variation in temperatures when using a UV heating efficiency
of 16\%, slightly lower than the theoretical value. The seasonal
variation of temperatures is overestimated by the model, in comparison
with the available measurements.
  doi = {10.1029/2008JE003246},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Coustenis}, A. and {Atreya}, S.~K. and {Balint}, T. and {Brown}, R.~H. and 
	{Dougherty}, M.~K. and {Ferri}, F. and {Fulchignoni}, M. and 
	{Gautier}, D. and {Gowen}, R.~A. and {Griffith}, C.~A. and {Gurvits}, L.~I. and 
	{Jaumann}, R. and {Langevin}, Y. and {Leese}, M.~R. and {Lunine}, J.~I. and 
	{McKay}, C.~P. and {Moussas}, X. and {M{\"u}ller-Wodarg}, I. and 
	{Neubauer}, F. and {Owen}, T.~C. and {Raulin}, F. and {Sittler}, E.~C. and 
	{Sohl}, F. and {Sotin}, C. and {Tobie}, G. and {Tokano}, T. and 
	{Turtle}, E.~P. and {Wahlund}, J.-E. and {Waite}, J.~H. and 
	{Baines}, K.~H. and {Blamont}, J. and {Coates}, A.~J. and {Dandouras}, I. and 
	{Krimigis}, T. and {Lellouch}, E. and {Lorenz}, R.~D. and {Morse}, A. and 
	{Porco}, C.~C. and {Hirtzig}, M. and {Saur}, J. and {Spilker}, T. and 
	{Zarnecki}, J.~C. and {Choi}, E. and {Achilleos}, N. and {Amils}, R. and 
	{Annan}, P. and {Atkinson}, D.~H. and {Bénilan}, Y. and 
	{Bertucci}, C. and {Bézard}, B. and {Bjoraker}, G.~L. and 
	{Blanc}, M. and {Boireau}, L. and {Bouman}, J. and {Cabane}, M. and 
	{Capria}, M.~T. and {Chassefière}, E. and {Coll}, P. and 
	{Combes}, M. and {Cooper}, J.~F. and {Coradini}, A. and {Crary}, F. and 
	{Cravens}, T. and {Daglis}, I.~A. and {de Angelis}, E. and {de Bergh}, C. and 
	{de Pater}, I. and {Dunford}, C. and {Durry}, G. and {Dutuit}, O. and 
	{Fairbrother}, D. and {Flasar}, F.~M. and {Fortes}, A.~D. and 
	{Frampton}, R. and {Fujimoto}, M. and {Galand}, M. and {Grasset}, O. and 
	{Grott}, M. and {Haltigin}, T. and {Herique}, A. and {Hersant}, F. and 
	{Hussmann}, H. and {Ip}, W. and {Johnson}, R. and {Kallio}, E. and 
	{Kempf}, S. and {Knapmeyer}, M. and {Kofman}, W. and {Koop}, R. and 
	{Kostiuk}, T. and {Krupp}, N. and {K{\"u}ppers}, M. and {Lammer}, H. and 
	{Lara}, L.-M. and {Lavvas}, P. and {Le Mouélic}, S. and 
	{Lebonnois}, S. and {Ledvina}, S. and {Li}, J. and {Livengood}, T.~A. and 
	{Lopes}, R.~M. and {Lopez-Moreno}, J.-J. and {Luz}, D. and {Mahaffy}, P.~R. and 
	{Mall}, U. and {Martinez-Frias}, J. and {Marty}, B. and {McCord}, T. and 
	{Menor Salvan}, C. and {Milillo}, A. and {Mitchell}, D.~G. and 
	{Modolo}, R. and {Mousis}, O. and {Nakamura}, M. and {Neish}, C.~D. and 
	{Nixon}, C.~A. and {Nna Mvondo}, D. and {Orton}, G. and {Paetzold}, M. and 
	{Pitman}, J. and {Pogrebenko}, S. and {Pollard}, W. and {Prieto-Ballesteros}, O. and 
	{Rannou}, P. and {Reh}, K. and {Richter}, L. and {Robb}, F.~T. and 
	{Rodrigo}, R. and {Rodriguez}, S. and {Romani}, P. and {Ruiz Bermejo}, M. and 
	{Sarris}, E.~T. and {Schenk}, P. and {Schmitt}, B. and {Schmitz}, N. and 
	{Schulze-Makuch}, D. and {Schwingenschuh}, K. and {Selig}, A. and 
	{Sicardy}, B. and {Soderblom}, L. and {Spilker}, L.~J. and {Stam}, D. and 
	{Steele}, A. and {Stephan}, K. and {Strobel}, D.~F. and {Szego}, K. and 
	{Szopa}, C. and {Thissen}, R. and {Tomasko}, M.~G. and {Toublanc}, D. and 
	{Vali}, H. and {Vardavas}, I. and {Vuitton}, V. and {West}, R.~A. and 
	{Yelle}, R. and {Young}, E.~F.},
  title = {{TandEM: Titan and Enceladus mission}},
  journal = {Experimental Astronomy},
  keywords = {TandEM, Titan, Enceladus, Saturnian system, Landing probes},
  year = 2009,
  volume = 23,
  pages = {893-946},
  abstract = {{TandEM was proposed as an L-class (large) mission in response to
ESA{\rsquo}s Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Call, and accepted for further
studies, with the goal of exploring Titan and Enceladus. The mission
concept is to perform in situ investigations of two worlds tied together
by location and properties, whose remarkable natures have been partly
revealed by the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission. These bodies still hold
mysteries requiring a complete exploration using a variety of vehicles
and instruments. TandEM is an ambitious mission because its targets are
two of the most exciting and challenging bodies in the Solar System. It
is designed to build on but exceed the scientific and technological
accomplishments of the Cassini-Huygens mission, exploring Titan and
Enceladus in ways that are not currently possible (full close-up and in
situ coverage over long periods of time). In the current mission
architecture, TandEM proposes to deliver two medium-sized spacecraft to
the Saturnian system. One spacecraft would be an orbiter with a large
host of instruments which would perform several Enceladus flybys and
deliver penetrators to its surface before going into a dedicated orbit
around Titan alone, while the other spacecraft would carry the Titan in
situ investigation components, i.e. a hot-air balloon
(Montgolfière) and possibly several landing probes to be
delivered through the atmosphere.
  doi = {10.1007/s10686-008-9103-z},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Langlais}, B. and {Leblanc}, F. and {Fouchet}, T. and {Barabash}, S. and 
	{Breuer}, D. and {Chassefière}, E. and {Coates}, A. and 
	{Dehant}, V. and {Forget}, F. and {Lammer}, H. and {Lewis}, S. and 
	{Lopez-Valverde}, M. and {Mandea}, M. and {Menvielle}, M. and 
	{Pais}, A. and {Paetzold}, M. and {Read}, P. and {Sotin}, C. and 
	{Tarits}, P. and {Vennerstrom}, S. and {Branduardi-Raymont}, G. and 
	{Cremonese}, G. and {Merayo}, J.~G.~M. and {Ott}, T. and {Rème}, H. and 
	{Trotignon}, J.~G. and {Walhund}, J.~E.},
  title = {{Mars environment and magnetic orbiter model payload}},
  journal = {Experimental Astronomy},
  keywords = {Space vehicles, Instruments, Planets and satellites, General, Solar-terrestrial relations, Formation, Magnetic fields, Solar system},
  year = 2009,
  volume = 23,
  pages = {761-783},
  abstract = {{Mars Environment and Magnetic Orbiter was proposed as an answer to the
Cosmic Vision Call of Opportunity as a M-class mission. The MEMO mission
is designed to study the strong interconnections between the planetary
interior, atmosphere and solar conditions essential to understand
planetary evolution, the appearance of life and its sustainability. MEMO
provides a high-resolution, complete, mapping of the magnetic field
(below an altitude of about 250 km), with an yet unachieved full global
coverage. This is combined with an in situ characterization of the high
atmosphere and remote sensing of the middle and lower atmospheres, with
an unmatched accuracy. These measurements are completed by an improved
detection of the gravity field signatures associated with carbon dioxide
cycle and to the tidal deformation. In addition the solar wind, solar
EUV/UV and energetic particle fluxes are simultaneously and continuously
monitored. The challenging scientific objectives of the MEMO mission
proposal are fulfilled with the appropriate scientific instruments and
orbit strategy. MEMO is composed of a main platform, placed on a
elliptical (130 {\times} 1,000 km), non polar (77{\deg} inclination)
orbit, and of an independent, higher apoapsis (10,000 km) and low
periapsis (300 km) micro-satellite. These orbital parameters are
designed so that the scientific return of MEMO is maximized, in terms of
measurement altitude, local time, season and geographical coverage. MEMO
carry several suites of instruments, made of an {\lsquo}exospheric-upper
atmosphere{\rsquo} package, a {\lsquo}magnetic field{\rsquo} package, and a
{\lsquo}low-middle atmosphere{\rsquo} package. Nominal mission duration is
one Martian year.
  doi = {10.1007/s10686-008-9101-1},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Lebonnois}, S. and {Rannou}, P. and {Hourdin}, F.},
  title = {{The coupling of winds, aerosols and chemistry in Titan's atmosphere}},
  journal = {Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series A},
  year = 2009,
  volume = 367,
  pages = {665-682},
  doi = {10.1098/rsta.2008.0243},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Tobie}, G. and {Choukroun}, M. and {Grasset}, O. and {Le Mouélic}, S. and 
	{Lunine}, J.~I. and {Sotin}, C. and {Bourgeois}, O. and {Gautier}, D. and 
	{Hirtzig}, M. and {Lebonnois}, S. and {Le Corre}, L.},
  title = {{Evolution of Titan and implications for its hydrocarbon cycle}},
  journal = {Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series A},
  year = 2009,
  volume = 367,
  pages = {617-631},
  doi = {10.1098/rsta.2008.0246},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Spiga}, A. and {Forget}, F.},
  title = {{A new model to simulate the Martian mesoscale and microscale atmospheric circulation: Validation and first results}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Planets)},
  keywords = {Planetary Sciences: Solar System Objects: Mars, Atmospheric Processes: Mesoscale meteorology, Atmospheric Processes: Boundary layer processes, Atmospheric Processes: Regional modeling, Planetary Sciences: Fluid Planets: Meteorology (3346)},
  year = 2009,
  volume = 114,
  eid = {E02009},
  pages = {E02009},
  abstract = {{The Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD) Mesoscale
Model is a new versatile simulator of the Martian atmosphere and
environment at horizontal scales ranging from hundreds of kilometers to
tens of meters. The model combines the National Centers for
Environmental Prediction(NCEP)-National Center for Atmospheric Research
(NCAR) fully compressible nonhydrostatic Advanced Research Weather
Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) dynamical core, adapted to Mars, with
the LMD-general circulation model (GCM) comprehensive set of physical
parameterizations for the Martian dust, CO$_{2}$, water, and
photochemistry cycles. Since LMD-GCM large-scale simulations are also
used to drive the mesoscale model at the boundaries of the chosen domain
of interest, a high level of downscaling consistency is reached. To
define the initial state and the atmosphere at the domain boundaries, a
specific ``hybrid'' vertical interpolation from the coarse-resolution
GCM fields to the high-resolution mesoscale domain is used to ensure the
stability and the physical relevancy of the simulations. Used in
synoptic-scale mode with a cyclic domain wrapped around the planet, the
mesoscale model correctly replicates the main large-scale thermal
structure and the zonally propagating waves. The model diagnostics of
the near-surface pressure, wind, and temperature daily cycles in Chryse
Planitia are in accordance with the Viking and Pathfinder measurements.
Afternoon gustiness at the respective landing sites is adequately
accounted for on the condition that convective adjustment is turned off
in the mesoscale simulations. On the rims of Valles Marineris, intense
daytime anabatic (\~{}30 m s$^{-1}$) and nighttime katabatic (\~{}40 m
s$^{-1}$) winds are predicted. Within the canyon corridors,
topographical channeling can amplify the wind a few kilometers above the
ground, especially during the night. Through large-eddy simulations in
Gusev Crater, the model describes the mixing layer growth during the
afternoon, and the associated dynamics: convective motions, overlying
gravity waves, and dust devil-like vortices. Modeled temperature
profiles are in satisfactory agreement with the Miniature Thermal
Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) measurements. The ability of the model
to transport tracers at regional scales is exemplified by the model's
prediction for the altitude of the Tharsis topographical water ice
clouds in the afternoon. Finally, a nighttime ``warm ring'' at the base
of Olympus Mons is identified in the simulations, resulting from
adiabatic warming by the intense downslope winds along the flanks of the
volcano. The surface temperature enhancement reaches +20 K throughout
the night. Such a phenomenon may have adversely affected the thermal
inertia derivations in the region.
  doi = {10.1029/2008JE003242},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Roach}, L.~H. and {Mustard}, J.~F. and {Murchie}, S.~L. and 
	{Bibring}, J.-P. and {Forget}, F. and {Lewis}, K.~W. and {Aharonson}, O. and 
	{Vincendon}, M. and {Bishop}, J.~L.},
  title = {{Testing evidence of recent hydration state change in sulfates on Mars}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Planets)},
  keywords = {Planetary Sciences: Solid Surface Planets: Remote sensing, Planetary Sciences: Solar System Objects: Mars, Mineralogy and Petrology: Alteration and weathering processes (1039), Planetary Sciences: Solid Surface Planets: Erosion and weathering},
  year = 2009,
  volume = 114,
  eid = {E00D02},
  pages = {E00D02},
  abstract = {{The East Candor Interior Layered Deposit (ILD) has signatures of mono-
and polyhydrated sulfate in alternating layers that give insight into
the processes which formed these layered deposits and on the
environmental conditions acting on them since then. We use orbital data
to explore multiple hypotheses for how these deposits formed: (1)
sulfate-bearing ILDs experience hydration changes on seasonal to a few
years timescales under current Mars environmental conditions; (2) the
deposits experience hydration under recent Mars conditions but require
the wetter climate of high obliquity; and (3) the kieserite could be an
original or diagenetic part of a complex evaporite mineral assemblage.
Modeled climatology shows recent Mars environmental conditions might
pass between multiple sulfate fields. However, comparison of
Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et
l'Activité (OMEGA) and Compact Reconnaissance Imaging
Spectrometer (CRISM) observations of the same ILD do not show changes in
hydration over 2 Mars years. Low temperatures might slow the kinetics of
that transition; it is likely that more clement conditions during
periods of high obliquity are needed to overcome mineral metastability
and hydrate kieserite-bearing deposits. We find the alternate model,
that the deposit is a cyclic evaporite sequence of mono- and
polyhydrated sulfates, also plausible but with an unexplained dearth of
Fe sulfates.
  doi = {10.1029/2008JE003245},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Leblanc}, F. and {Langlais}, B. and {Fouchet}, T. and {Barabash}, S. and 
	{Breuer}, D. and {Chassefière}, E. and {Coates}, A. and 
	{Dehant}, V. and {Forget}, F. and {Lammer}, H. and {Lewis}, S. and 
	{Lopez-Valverde}, M. and {Mandea}, M. and {Menvielle}, M. and 
	{Pais}, A. and {Paetzold}, M. and {Read}, P. and {Sotin}, C. and 
	{Tarits}, P. and {Vennerstrom}, S.},
  title = {{Mars Environment and Magnetic Orbiter Scientific and Measurement Objectives}},
  journal = {Astrobiology},
  keywords = {Mars,  Future space mission,  Solar wind, Atmosphere,  Magnetic field,  Surface,},
  year = 2009,
  volume = 9,
  pages = {71-89},
  abstract = {{In this paper, we summarize our present understanding of Mars'
atmosphere, magnetic field, and surface and address past evolution of
these features. Key scientific questions concerning Mars' surface,
atmosphere, and magnetic field, along with the planet's interaction with
solar wind, are discussed. We also define what key parameters and
measurements should be performed and the main characteristics of a
martian mission that would help to provide answers to these questions.

Such a mission -- Mars Environment and Magnetic Orbiter (MEMO) -- was
proposed as an answer to the Cosmic Vision Call of Opportunity as an
M-class mission (corresponding to a total European Space Agency cost of
less than 300 M{\euro}). MEMO was designed to study the strong
interconnection between the planetary interior, atmosphere, and solar
conditions, which is essential to our understanding of planetary
evolution, the appearance of life, and its sustainability.

The MEMO main platform combined remote sensing and in situ measurements
of the atmosphere and the magnetic field during regular incursions into
the martian upper atmosphere. The micro-satellite was designed to
perform simultaneous in situ solar wind measurements. MEMO was defined
to conduct:

{\bull} Four-dimensional mapping of the martian atmosphere from the
surface up to 120 km by measuring wind, temperature, water, and
composition, all of which would provide a complete view of the martian
climate and photochemical system;

{\bull} Mapping of the low-altitude magnetic field with unprecedented
geographical, altitude, local time, and seasonal resolutions;

{\bull} A characterization of the simultaneous responses of the
atmosphere, magnetic field, and near-Mars space to solar variability by
means of in situ atmospheric and solar wind measurements.
  doi = {10.1089/ast.2007.0222},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}
  author = {{Forget}, F. and {Montmessin}, F. and {Bertaux}, J.-L. and {Gonz{\'a}lez-Galindo}, F. and 
	{Lebonnois}, S. and {Quémerais}, E. and {Reberac}, A. and 
	{Dimarellis}, E. and {L{\'o}pez-Valverde}, M.~A.},
  title = {{Density and temperatures of the upper Martian atmosphere measured by stellar occultations with Mars Express SPICAM}},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research (Planets)},
  keywords = {Planetary Sciences: Fluid Planets: Atmospheres (0343, 1060), Planetary Sciences: Solar System Objects: Mars, Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Pressure, density, and temperature},
  year = 2009,
  volume = 114,
  eid = {E01004},
  pages = {E01004},
  abstract = {{We present one Martian year of observations of the density and
temperature in the upper atmosphere of Mars (between 60 and 130 km)
obtained by the Mars Express ultraviolet spectrometer Spectroscopy for
Investigation of Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Mars (SPICAM). Six
hundred sixteen profiles were retrieved using stellar occultations
technique at various latitude and longitude. The atmospheric densities
exhibit large seasonal fluctuations due to variations in the dust
content of the lower atmosphere which controls the temperature and,
thus, the atmospheric scale height, below 50 km. In particular, the year
observed by SPICAM was affected by an unexpected dust loading around Ls
= 130{\deg} which induced a sudden increase of density above 60 km. The
diurnal cycle could not be analyzed in detail because most data were
obtained at nighttime, except for a few occultations observed around
noon during northern winter. There, the averaged midday profile is found
to slightly differ from the corresponding midnight profile, with the
observed differences being consistent with propagating thermal tides and
variations in local solar heating. About 6\% of the observed mesopause
temperatures exhibits temperature below the CO$_{2}$ frost point,
especially during northern summer in the tropics. Comparison with
atmospheric general circulation model predictions shows that the
existing models overestimate the temperature around the mesopause (above
80 to 100 km) by up to 30 K, probably because of an underestimation of
the atomic oxygen concentration which controls the CO$_{2}$
infrared cooling.
  doi = {10.1029/2008JE003086},
  adsurl = {},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}