2017 .

(24 publications)

F. Montmessin, O. Korablev, F. Lefèvre, J.-L. Bertaux, A. Fedorova, A. Trokhimovskiy, J. Y. Chaufray, G. Lacombe, A. Reberac, L. Maltagliati, Y. Willame, S. Guslyakova, J.-C. Gérard, A. Stiepen, D. Fussen, N. Mateshvili, A. Määttänen, F. Forget, O. Witasse, F. Leblanc, A. C. Vandaele, E. Marcq, B. Sandel, B. Gondet, N. Schneider, M. Chaffin, and N. Chapron. SPICAM on Mars Express: A 10 year in-depth survey of the Martian atmosphere. Icarus, 297:195-216, 2017. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

The SPICAM experiment onboard Mars Express has accumulated during the last decade a wealth of observations that has permitted a detailed characterization of the atmospheric composition and activity from the near-surface up to above the exosphere. The SPICAM climatology is one of the longest assembled to date by an instrument in orbit around Mars, offering the opportunity to study the fate of major volatile species in the Martian atmosphere over a multi-(Mars)year timeframe. With his dual ultraviolet (UV)-near Infrared channels, SPICAM observes spectral ranges encompassing signatures created by a variety atmospheric gases, from major (CO2) to trace species (H2O, O3). Here, we present a synthesis of the observations collected for water vapor, ozone, clouds and dust, carbon dioxide, exospheric hydrogen and airglows. The assembled climatology covers the MY 27-MY 31 period. However, the monitoring of UV-derived species was interrupted at the end of 2014 (MY30) due to failure of the UV channel. A SO2 detection attempt was undertaken, but proved unsuccessful from regional to global scales (with upper limit greater than already published ones). One particular conclusion that stands out from this overview work concerns the way the Martian atmosphere organizes an efficient mass transfer between the lower and the upper atmospheric reservoirs. This highway to space, as we name it, is best illustrated by water and hydrogen, both species having been monitored by SPICAM in their respective atmospheric reservoir. Coupling between the two appear to occur on seasonal timescales, much shorter than theoretical predictions.

M. Rostami, V. Zeitlin, and A. Spiga. On the dynamical nature of Saturn's North Polar hexagon. Icarus, 297:59-70, 2017. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

An explanation of long-lived Saturn's North Polar hexagonal circumpolar jet in terms of instability of the coupled system polar vortex - circumpolar jet is proposed in the framework of the rotating shallow water model, where scarcely known vertical structure of the Saturn's atmosphere is averaged out. The absence of a hexagonal structure at Saturn's South Pole is explained similarly. By using the latest state-of-the-art observed winds in Saturn's polar regions a detailed linear stability analysis of the circumpolar jet is performed (i) excluding (;jet-only; configuration), and (2) including (;jet + vortex; configuration) the north polar vortex in the system. A domain of parameters: latitude of the circumpolar jet and curvature of its azimuthal velocity profile, where the most unstable mode of the system has azimuthal wavenumber 6, is identified. Fully nonlinear simulations are then performed, initialized either with the most unstable mode of small amplitude, or with the random combination of unstable modes. It is shown that developing barotropic instability of the ;jet+vortex; system produces a long-living structure akin to the observed hexagon, which is not the case of the ;jet-only; system, which was studied in this context in a number of papers in literature. The north polar vortex, thus, plays a decisive dynamical role. The influence of moist convection, which was recently suggested to be at the origin of Saturn's North Polar vortex system in the literature, is investigated in the framework of the model and does not alter the conclusions.

R. F. Garcia, Q. Brissaud, L. Rolland, R. Martin, D. Komatitsch, A. Spiga, P. Lognonné, and B. Banerdt. Finite-Difference Modeling of Acoustic and Gravity Wave Propagation in Mars Atmosphere: Application to Infrasounds Emitted by Meteor Impacts. , 211:547-570, 2017. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

The propagation of acoustic and gravity waves in planetary atmospheres is strongly dependent on both wind conditions and attenuation properties. This study presents a finite-difference modeling tool tailored for acoustic-gravity wave applications that takes into account the effect of background winds, attenuation phenomena (including relaxation effects specific to carbon dioxide atmospheres) and wave amplification by exponential density decrease with height. The simulation tool is implemented in 2D Cartesian coordinates and first validated by comparison with analytical solutions for benchmark problems. It is then applied to surface explosions simulating meteor impacts on Mars in various Martian atmospheric conditions inferred from global climate models. The acoustic wave travel times are validated by comparison with 2D ray tracing in a windy atmosphere. Our simulations predict that acoustic waves generated by impacts can refract back to the surface on wind ducts at high altitude. In addition, due to the strong nighttime near-surface temperature gradient on Mars, the acoustic waves are trapped in a waveguide close to the surface, which allows a night-side detection of impacts at large distances in Mars plains. Such theoretical predictions are directly applicable to future measurements by the INSIGHT NASA Discovery mission.

B. Kenda, P. Lognonné, A. Spiga, T. Kawamura, S. Kedar, W. B. Banerdt, R. Lorenz, D. Banfield, and M. Golombek. Modeling of Ground Deformation and Shallow Surface Waves Generated by Martian Dust Devils and Perspectives for Near-Surface Structure Inversion. , 211:501-524, 2017. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

We investigated the possible seismic signatures of dust devils on Mars, both at long and short period, based on the analysis of Earth data and on forward modeling for Mars. Seismic and meteorological data collected in the Mojave Desert, California, recorded the signals generated by dust devils. In the 10-100 s band, the quasi-static surface deformation triggered by pressure fluctuations resulted in detectable ground-tilt effects: these are in good agreement with our modeling based on Sorrells' theory. In addition, high-frequency records also exhibit a significant excitation in correspondence to dust devil episodes. Besides wind noise, this signal includes shallow surface waves due to the atmosphere-surface coupling and is used for a preliminary inversion of the near-surface S-wave profile down to 50 m depth. In the case of Mars, we modeled the long-period signals generated by the pressure field resulting from turbulence-resolving Large-Eddy Simulations. For typical dust-devil-like vortices with pressure drops of a couple Pascals, the corresponding horizontal acceleration is of a few nm/s2 for rocky subsurface models and reaches 10-20 nm/s2 for weak regolith models. In both cases, this signal can be detected by the Very-Broad Band seismometers of the InSight/SEIS experiment up to a distance of a few hundred meters from the vortex, the amplitude of the signal decreasing as the inverse of the distance. Atmospheric vortices are thus expected to be detected at the InSight landing site; the analysis of their seismic and atmospheric signals could lead to additional constraints on the near-surface structure, more precisely on the ground compliance and possibly on the seismic velocities.

N. Murdoch, B. Kenda, T. Kawamura, A. Spiga, P. Lognonné, D. Mimoun, and W. B. Banerdt. Estimations of the Seismic Pressure Noise on Mars Determined from Large Eddy Simulations and Demonstration of Pressure Decorrelation Techniques for the Insight Mission. , 211:457-483, 2017. [ bib | DOI | arXiv | ADS link ]

The atmospheric pressure fluctuations on Mars induce an elastic response in the ground that creates a ground tilt, detectable as a seismic signal on the InSight seismometer SEIS. The seismic pressure noise is modeled using Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of the wind and surface pressure at the InSight landing site and a Green's function ground deformation approach that is subsequently validated via a detailed comparison with two other methods: a spectral approach, and an approach based on Sorrells' theory (Sorrells, Geophys. J. Int. 26:71-82, 1971; Sorrells et al., Nat. Phys. Sci. 229:14-16, 1971). The horizontal accelerations as a result of the ground tilt due to the LES turbulence-induced pressure fluctuations are found to be typically 2 - 40 nm/s2 in amplitude, whereas the direct horizontal acceleration is two orders of magnitude smaller and is thus negligible in comparison. The vertical accelerations are found to be 0.1-6 nm/s2 in amplitude. These are expected to be worst-case estimates for the seismic noise as we use a half-space approximation; the presence at some (shallow) depth of a harder layer would significantly reduce quasi-static displacement and tilt effects.

We show that under calm conditions, a single-pressure measurement is representative of the large-scale pressure field (to a distance of several kilometers), particularly in the prevailing wind direction. However, during windy conditions, small-scale turbulence results in a reduced correlation between the pressure signals, and the single-pressure measurement becomes less representative of the pressure field. The correlation between the seismic signal and the pressure signal is found to be higher for the windiest period because the seismic pressure noise reflects the atmospheric structure close to the seismometer.

In the same way that we reduce the atmospheric seismic signal by making use of a pressure sensor that is part of the InSight Auxiliary Payload Sensor Suite, we also the use the synthetic noise data obtained from the LES pressure field to demonstrate a decorrelation strategy. We show that our decorrelation approach is efficient, resulting in a reduction by a factor of 5 in the observed horizontal tilt noise (in the wind direction) and the vertical noise. This technique can, therefore, be used to remove the pressure signal from the seismic data obtained on Mars during the InSight mission.

M. Turbet, F. Forget, J. Leconte, B. Charnay, and G. Tobie. CO2 condensation is a serious limit to the deglaciation of Earth-like planets. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 476:11-21, 2017. [ bib | DOI | arXiv | ADS link ]

It is widely believed that the carbonate-silicate cycle is the main agent, through volcanism, to trigger deglaciations by CO2 greenhouse warming on Earth and on Earth-like planets when they get in a frozen state. Here we use a 3D Global Climate Model to simulate the ability of planets initially completely frozen to escape from glaciation episodes by accumulating enough gaseous CO2. The model includes CO2 condensation and sublimation processes and the water cycle. We find that planets with Earth-like characteristics (size, mass, obliquity, rotation rate, etc.) orbiting a Sun-like star may never be able to escape from a glaciation era, if their orbital distance is greater than ~1.27 Astronomical Units (Flux 847 Wm-2 or 62% of the Solar constant), because CO2 would condense at the poles - here the cold traps - forming permanent CO2 ice caps. This limits the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere and thus its greenhouse effect. Furthermore, our results indicate that for (1) high rotation rates (Prot 24 h), (2) low obliquity (obliquity 23.5deg), (3) low background gas partial pressures (1 bar), and (4) high water ice albedo (H2O albedo 0.6), this critical limit could occur at a significantly lower equivalent distance (or higher insolation). For each possible configuration, we show that the amount of CO2 that can be trapped in the polar caps depends on the efficiency of CO2 ice to flow laterally as well as its gravitational stability relative to subsurface water ice. We find that a frozen Earth-like planet located at 1.30 AU of a Sun-like star could store as much as 1.5, 4.5 and 15 bars of dry ice at the poles, for internal heat fluxes of 100, 30 and 10 mW m-2, respectively. But these amounts are in fact lower limits. For planets with a significant water ice cover, we show that CO2 ice deposits should be gravitationally unstable. They get buried beneath the water ice cover in geologically short timescales of ~104 yrs, mainly controlled by the viscosity of water ice. CO2 would be permanently sequestered underneath the water ice cover, in the form of CO2 liquids, CO2 clathrate hydrates and/or dissolved in subglacial water reservoirs (if any). This would considerably increase the amount of CO2 trapped and further reduce the probability of deglaciation.

A. Spiga, D. P. Hinson, J.-B. Madeleine, T. Navarro, E. Millour, F. Forget, and F. Montmessin. Snow precipitation on Mars driven by cloud-induced night-time convection. Nature Geoscience, 10:652-657, 2017. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

Although it contains less water vapour than Earth's atmosphere, the Martian atmosphere hosts clouds. These clouds, composed of water-ice particles, influence the global transport of water vapour and the seasonal variations of ice deposits. However, the influence of water-ice clouds on local weather is unclear: it is thought that Martian clouds are devoid of moist convective motions, and snow precipitation occurs only by the slow sedimentation of individual particles. Here we present numerical simulations of the meteorology in Martian cloudy regions that demonstrate that localized convective snowstorms can occur on Mars. We show that such snowstorms-or ice microbursts-can explain deep night-time mixing layers detected from orbit and precipitation signatures detected below water-ice clouds by the Phoenix lander. In our simulations, convective snowstorms occur only during the Martian night, and result from atmospheric instability due to radiative cooling of water-ice cloud particles. This triggers strong convective plumes within and below clouds, with fast snow precipitation resulting from the vigorous descending currents. Night-time convection in Martian water-ice clouds and the associated snow precipitation lead to transport of water both above and below the mixing layers, and thus would affect Mars' water cycle past and present, especially under the high-obliquity conditions associated with a more intense water cycle.

S. S. Limaye, S. Lebonnois, A. Mahieux, M. Pätzold, S. Bougher, S. Bruinsma, S. Chamberlain, R. T. Clancy, J.-C. Gérard, G. Gilli, D. Grassi, R. Haus, M. Herrmann, T. Imamura, E. Kohler, P. Krause, A. Migliorini, F. Montmessin, C. Pere, M. Persson, A. Piccialli, M. Rengel, A. Rodin, B. Sandor, M. Sornig, H. Svedhem, S. Tellmann, P. Tanga, A. C. Vandaele, T. Widemann, C. F. Wilson, I. Müller-Wodarg, and L. Zasova. The thermal structure of the Venus atmosphere: Intercomparison of Venus Express and ground based observations of vertical temperature and density profiles. Icarus, 294:124-155, 2017. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

The Venus International Reference Atmosphere (VIRA) model contains tabulated values of temperature and number densities obtained by the experiments on the Venera entry probes, Pioneer Venus Orbiter and multi-probe missions in the 1980s. The instruments on the recent Venus Express orbiter mission generated a significant amount of new observational data on the vertical and horizontal structure of the Venus atmosphere from 40 km to about 180 km altitude from April 2006 to November 2014. Many ground based experiments have provided data on the upper atmosphere (90-130 km) temperature structure since the publication of VIRA in 1985. The “Thermal Structure of the Venus Atmosphere” Team was supported by the International Space Studies Institute (ISSI), Bern, Switzerland, from 2013 to 2015 in order to combine and compare the ground-based observations and the VEx observations of the thermal structure as a first step towards generating an updated VIRA model. Results of this comparison are presented in five latitude bins and three local time bins by assuming hemispheric symmetry. The intercomparison of the ground-based and VEx results provides for the first time a consistent picture of the temperature and density structure in the 40 km-180 km altitude range. The Venus Express observations have considerably increased our knowledge of the Venus atmospheric thermal structure above ~40 km and provided new information above 100 km. There are, however, still observational gaps in latitude and local time above certain regions. Considerable variability in the temperatures and densities is seen above 100 km but certain features appear to be systematically present, such as a succession of warm and cool layers. Preliminary modeling studies support the existence of such layers in agreement with a global scale circulation. The intercomparison focuses on average profiles but some VEx experiments provide sufficient global coverage to identify solar thermal tidal components.

The differences between the VEx temperature profiles and the VIRA below 0.1 mbar/95 km are small. There is, however, a clear discrepancy at high latitudes in the 10-30 mbar (70-80 km) range. The VEx observations will also allow the improvement of the empirical models (VTS3 by Hedin et al., 1983 and VIRA by Keating et al., 1985) above 0.03 mbar/100 km, in particular the 100-150 km region where a sufficient observational coverage was previously missing. The next steps in order to define the updated VIRA temperature structure up to 150 km altitude are (1) define the grid on which this database may be provided, (2) fill what is possible with the results of the data intercomparison, and (3) fill the observational gaps. An interpolation between the datasets may be performed by using available General Circulation Models as guidelines.

An improved spatial coverage of observations is still necessary at all altitudes, in latitude-longitude and at all local solar times for a complete description of the atmospheric thermal structure, in particular on the dayside above 100 km. New in-situ observations in the atmosphere below 40 km are missing, an altitude region that cannot be accessed by occultation experiments. All these questions need to be addressed by future missions.

B. Charnay, G. Le Hir, F. Fluteau, F. Forget, and D. C. Catling. A warm or a cold early Earth? New insights from a 3-D climate-carbon model. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 474:97-109, 2017. [ bib | DOI | arXiv | ADS link ]

Oxygen isotopes in marine cherts have been used to infer hot oceans during the Archean with temperatures between 60 degC (333 K) and 80 degC (353 K). Such climates are challenging for the early Earth warmed by the faint young Sun. The interpretation of the data has therefore been controversial. 1D climate modeling inferred that such hot climates would require very high levels of CO2 (2-6 bars). Previous carbon cycle modeling concluded that such stable hot climates were impossible and that the carbon cycle should lead to cold climates during the Hadean and the Archean. Here, we revisit the climate and carbon cycle of the early Earth at 3.8 Ga using a 3D climate-carbon model. We find that CO2 partial pressures of around 1 bar could have produced hot climates given a low land fraction and cloud feedback effects. However, such high CO2 partial pressures should not have been stable because of the weathering of terrestrial and oceanic basalts, producing an efficient stabilizing feedback. Moreover, the weathering of impact ejecta during the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) would have strongly reduced the CO2 partial pressure leading to cold climates and potentially snowball Earth events after large impacts. Our results therefore favor cold or temperate climates with global mean temperatures between around 8 degC (281 K) and 30 degC (303 K) and with 0.1-0.36 bar of CO2 for the late Hadean and early Archean. Finally, our model suggests that the carbon cycle was efficient for preserving clement conditions on the early Earth without necessarily requiring any other greenhouse gas or warming process.

J. Grazioli, C. Genthon, B. Boudevillain, C. Duran-Alarcon, M. Del Guasta, J.-B. Madeleine, and A. Berne. Measurements of precipitation in Dumont d'Urville, Adélie Land, East Antarctica. The Cryosphere, 11:1797-1811, 2017. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

The first results of a campaign of intensive observation of precipitation in Dumont d'Urville, Antarctica, are presented. Several instruments collected data from November 2015 to February 2016 or longer, including a polarimetric radar (MXPol), a Micro Rain Radar (MRR), a weighing gauge (Pluvio2), and a Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC). These instruments collected the first ground-based measurements of precipitation in the region of Adélie Land (Terre Adélie), including precipitation microphysics. Microphysical observations during the austral summer 2015/2016 showed that, close to the ground level, aggregates are the dominant hydrometeor type, together with small ice particles (mostly originating from blowing snow), and that riming is a recurring process. Eleven percent of the measured particles were fully developed graupel, and aggregates had a mean riming degree of about 30 %. Spurious precipitation in the Pluvio2 measurements in windy conditions, leading to phantom accumulations, is observed and partly removed through synergistic use of MRR data. The yearly accumulated precipitation of snow (300 m above ground), obtained by means of a local conversion relation of MRR data, trained on the Pluvio2 measurement of the summer period, is estimated to be 815 mm of water equivalent, with a confidence interval ranging between 739.5 and 989 mm. Data obtained in previous research from satellite-borne radars, and the ERA-Interim reanalysis of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) provide lower yearly totals: 655 mm for ERA-Interim and 679 mm for the climatological data over DDU. ERA-Interim overestimates the occurrence of low-intensity precipitation events especially in summer, but it compensates for them by underestimating the snowfall amounts carried by the most intense events. Overall, this paper provides insightful examples of the added values of precipitation monitoring in Antarctica with a synergistic use of in situ and remote sensing measurements.

A. Sánchez-Lavega, S. Lebonnois, T. Imamura, P. Read, and D. Luz. The Atmospheric Dynamics of Venus. , 2017. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

We review our current knowledge of the atmospheric dynamics of Venus prior to the Akatsuki mission, in the altitude range from the surface to approximately the cloud tops located at about 100 km altitude. The three-dimensional structure of the wind field in this region has been determined with a variety of techniques over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales (from the mesoscale to planetary, from days to years, in daytime and nighttime), spanning a period of about 50 years (from the 1960s to the present). The global panorama is that the mean atmospheric motions are essentially zonal, dominated by the so-called super-rotation (an atmospheric rotation that is 60 to 80 times faster than that of the planetary body). The zonal winds blow westward (in the same direction as the planet rotation) with a nearly constant speed of 100 m s^{-1} at the cloud tops (65-70 km altitude) from latitude 50degN to 50degS, then decreasing their speeds monotonically from these latitudes toward the poles. Vertically, the zonal winds decrease with decreasing altitude towards velocities 1-3 m s^{-1} in a layer of thickness 10 km close to the surface. Meridional motions with peak speeds of 15 m s^{-1} occur within the upper cloud at 65 km altitude and are related to a Hadley cell circulation and to the solar thermal tide. Vertical motions with speeds 1-3 m s^{-1} occur in the statically unstable layer between altitudes of 50 - 55 km. All these motions are permanent with speed variations of the order of 10%. Various types of wave, from mesoscale gravity waves to Rossby-Kelvin planetary scale waves, have been detected at and above cloud heights, and are considered to be candidates as agents for carrying momentum that drives the super-rotation, although numerical models do not fully reproduce all the observed features. Momentum transport by atmospheric waves and the solar tide is thought to be an indispensable component of the general circulation of the Venus atmosphere. Another conspicuous feature of the atmospheric circulation is the presence of polar vortices. These are present in both hemispheres and are regions of warmer and lower clouds, seen prominently at infrared wavelengths, showing a highly variable morphology and motions. The vortices spin with a period of 2-3 days. The South polar vortex rotates around a geographical point which is itself displaced from the true pole of rotation by 3 degrees. The polar vortex is surrounded and constrained by the cold collar, an infrared-dark region of lower temperatures. We still lack detailed models of the mechanisms underlying the dynamics of these features and how they couple (or not) to the super-rotation. The nature of the super-rotation relates to the angular momentum stored in the atmosphere and how it is transported between the tropics and higher latitudes, and between the deep atmosphere and upper levels. The role of eddy processes is crucial, but likely involves the complex interaction of a variety of different types of eddy, either forced directly by radiative heating and mechanical interactions with the surface or through various forms of instability. Numerical models have achieved some significant recent success in capturing some aspects of the observed super-rotation, consistent with the scenario discussed by Gierasch (J. Atmos. Sci. 32:1038-1044, 1975) and Rossow and Williams (J. Atmos. Sci. 36:377-389, 1979), but many uncertainties remain, especially in the deep atmosphere. The theoretical framework developed to explain the circulation in Venus's atmosphere is reviewed, as well as the numerical models that have been built to elucidate the super-rotation mechanism. These tools are used to analyze the respective roles of the different waves in the processes driving the observed motions. Their limitations and suggested directions for improvements are discussed.

S. Lebonnois and G. Schubert. The deep atmosphere of Venus and the possible role of density-driven separation of CO2 and N2. Nature Geoscience, 10:473-477, 2017. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

With temperatures around 700 K and pressures of around 75 bar, the deepest 12 km of the atmosphere of Venus are so hot and dense that the atmosphere behaves like a supercritical fluid. The Soviet VeGa-2 probe descended through the atmosphere in 1985 and obtained the only reliable temperature profile for the deep Venusian atmosphere thus far. In this temperature profile, the atmosphere appears to be highly unstable at altitudes below 7 km, contrary to expectations. We argue that the VeGa-2 temperature profile could be explained by a change in the atmospheric gas composition, and thus molecular mass, with depth. We propose that the deep atmosphere consists of a non-homogeneous layer in which the abundance of N2-the second most abundant constituent of the Venusian atmosphere after CO2-gradually decreases to near-zero at the surface. It is difficult to explain a decline in N2 towards the surface with known nitrogen sources and sinks for Venus. Instead we suggest, partly based on experiments on supercritical fluids, that density-driven separation of N2 from CO2 can occur under the high pressures of Venus's deep atmosphere, possibly by molecular diffusion, or by natural density-driven convection. If so, the amount of nitrogen in the atmosphere of Venus is 15% lower than commonly assumed. We suggest that similar density-driven separation could occur in other massive planetary atmospheres.

A. Pottier, F. Forget, F. Montmessin, T. Navarro, A. Spiga, E. Millour, A. Szantai, and J.-B. Madeleine. Unraveling the martian water cycle with high-resolution global climate simulations. Icarus, 291:82-106, 2017. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

Global climate modeling of the Mars water cycle is usually performed at relatively coarse resolution (200 - 300km), which may not be sufficient to properly represent the impact of waves, fronts, topography effects on the detailed structure of clouds and surface ice deposits. Here, we present new numerical simulations of the annual water cycle performed at a resolution of 1deg × 1deg (~ 60 km in latitude). The model includes the radiative effects of clouds, whose influence on the thermal structure and atmospheric dynamics is significant, thus we also examine simulations with inactive clouds to distinguish the direct impact of resolution on circulation and winds from the indirect impact of resolution via water ice clouds. To first order, we find that the high resolution does not dramatically change the behavior of the system, and that simulations performed at ~ 200 km resolution capture well the behavior of the simulated water cycle and Mars climate. Nevertheless, a detailed comparison between high and low resolution simulations, with reference to observations, reveal several significant changes that impact our understanding of the water cycle active today on Mars. The key northern cap edge dynamics are affected by an increase in baroclinic wave strength, with a complication of northern summer dynamics. South polar frost deposition is modified, with a westward longitudinal shift, since southern dynamics are also influenced. Baroclinic wave mode transitions are observed. New transient phenomena appear, like spiral and streak clouds, already documented in the observations. Atmospheric circulation cells in the polar region exhibit a large variability and are fine structured, with slope winds. Most modeled phenomena affected by high resolution give a picture of a more turbulent planet, inducing further variability. This is challenging for long-period climate studies.

J. L. Vago, F. Westall, Pasteur Instrument Team, Pasteur Landing Team, A. J. Coates, R. Jaumann, O. Korablev, V. Ciarletti, I. Mitrofanov, J.-L. Josset, M. C. De Sanctis, J.-P. Bibring, F. Rull, F. Goesmann, H. Steininger, W. Goetz, W. Brinckerhoff, C. Szopa, F. Raulin, F. Westall, H. G. M. Edwards, L. G. Whyte, A. G. Fairén, J.-P. Bibring, J. Bridges, E. Hauber, G. G. Ori, S. Werner, D. Loizeau, R. O. Kuzmin, R. M. E. Williams, J. Flahaut, F. Forget, J. L. Vago, D. Rodionov, O. Korablev, H. Svedhem, E. Sefton-Nash, G. Kminek, L. Lorenzoni, L. Joudrier, V. Mikhailov, A. Zashchirinskiy, S. Alexashkin, F. Calantropio, A. Merlo, P. Poulakis, O. Witasse, O. Bayle, S. Bayón, U. Meierhenrich, J. Carter, J. M. García-Ruiz, P. Baglioni, A. Haldemann, A. J. Ball, A. Debus, R. Lindner, F. Haessig, D. Monteiro, R. Trautner, C. Voland, P. Rebeyre, D. Goulty, F. Didot, S. Durrant, E. Zekri, D. Koschny, A. Toni, G. Visentin, M. Zwick, M. van Winnendael, M. Azkarate, C. Carreau, and ExoMars Project Team. Habitability on Early Mars and the Search for Biosignatures with the ExoMars Rover. Astrobiology, 17:471-510, 2017. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

The second ExoMars mission will be launched in 2020 to target an ancient location interpreted to have strong potential for past habitability and for preserving physical and chemical biosignatures (as well as abiotic/prebiotic organics). The mission will deliver a lander with instruments for atmospheric and geophysical investigations and a rover tasked with searching for signs of extinct life. The ExoMars rover will be equipped with a drill to collect material from outcrops and at depth down to 2 m. This subsurface sampling capability will provide the best chance yet to gain access to chemical biosignatures. Using the powerful Pasteur payload instruments, the ExoMars science team will conduct a holistic search for traces of life and seek corroborating geological context information.

L. J. Steele, M. R. Balme, S. R. Lewis, and A. Spiga. The water cycle and regolith-atmosphere interaction at Gale crater, Mars. Icarus, 289:56-79, 2017. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

We perform mesoscale simulations of the water cycle in a region around Gale crater, including the diffusion of water vapour in and out of the regolith, and compare our results with measurements from the REMS instrument on board the Curiosity rover. Simulations are performed at three times of year, and show that diffusion in and out of the regolith and adsorption/desorption needs to be taken into account in order to match the diurnal variation of relative humidity measured by REMS. During the evening and night, local downslope flows transport water vapour down the walls of Gale crater. When including regolith-atmosphere interaction, the amount of vapour reaching the crater floor is reduced (by factors of 2-3 depending on season) due to vapour diffusing into the regolith along the crater walls. The transport of vapour into Gale crater is also affected by the regional katabatic flow over the dichotomy boundary, with the largest flux of vapour into the regolith initially occurring on the northern crater wall, and moving to the southern wall by early morning. Upslope winds during the day transport vapour desorbing and mixing out of the regolith up crater walls, where it can then be transported a few hundred metres into the atmosphere at convergence boundaries. Regolith-atmosphere interaction limits the formation of surface ice by reducing water vapour abundances in the lower atmosphere, though in some seasons ice can still form in the early morning on eastern crater walls. Subsurface ice amounts are small in all seasons, with ice only existing in the upper few millimetres of regolith during the night. The results at Gale crater are representative of the behaviour at other craters in the mesoscale domain.

A. Stiepen, S. K. Jain, N. M. Schneider, J. I. Deighan, F. González-Galindo, J.-C. Gérard, Z. Milby, M. H. Stevens, S. Bougher, J. S. Evans, A. I. F. Stewart, M. S. Chaffin, M. Crismani, W. E. McClintock, J. T. Clarke, G. M. Holsclaw, F. Montmessin, F. Lefèvre, F. Forget, D. Y. Lo, B. Hubert, and B. M. Jakosky. Nitric oxide nightglow and Martian mesospheric circulation from MAVEN/IUVS observations and LMD-MGCM predictions. Journal of Geophysical Research (Space Physics), 122:5782-5797, 2017. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

We report results from a study of nitric oxide nightglow over the northern hemisphere of Mars during winter, the southern hemisphere during fall equinox, and equatorial latitudes during summer in the northern hemisphere based on observations of the δ and γ bands between 190 and 270 nm by the Imaging UltraViolet Spectrograph (IUVS) on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN mission (MAVEN) spacecraft. The emission reveals recombination of N and O atoms dissociated on the dayside of Mars and transported to the nightside. We characterize the brightness (from 0.2 to 30 kR) and altitude (from 40 to 115 km) of the NO nightglow layer, as well as its topside scale height (mean of 11 km). We show the possible impact of atmospheric waves forcing longitudinal variability, associated with an increased brightness by a factor of 3 in the 140-200deg longitude region in the northern hemisphere winter and in the -102deg to -48deg longitude region at summer. Such impact to the NO nightglow at Mars was not seen before. Quantitative comparison with calculations of the LMD-MGCM (Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique-Mars Global Climate Model) suggests that the model globally reproduces the trends of the NO nightglow emission and its seasonal variation and also indicates large discrepancies (up to a factor 50 fainter in the model) in northern winter at low to middle latitudes. This suggests that the predicted transport is too efficient toward the night winter pole in the thermosphere by 20deg latitude north.

M. Turbet, F. Forget, J. W. Head, and R. Wordsworth. 3D modelling of the climatic impact of outflow channel formation events on early Mars. Icarus, 288:10-36, 2017. [ bib | DOI | arXiv | ADS link ]

Mars was characterized by cataclysmic groundwater-sourced surface flooding that formed large outflow channels and that may have altered the climate for extensive periods during the Hesperian era. In particular, it has been speculated that such events could have induced significant rainfall and caused the formation of late-stage valley networks. We present the results of 3-D Global Climate Model simulations reproducing the short and long term climatic impact of a wide range of outflow channel formation events under cold ancient Mars conditions. We find that the most intense of these events (volumes of water up to 107 km3 and released at temperatures up to 320 K) cannot trigger long-term greenhouse global warming, regardless of how favorable are the external conditions (e.g. obliquity and seasons). Furthermore, the intensity of the response of the events is significantly affected by the atmospheric pressure, a parameter not well constrained for the Hesperian era. Thin atmospheres (P 80 mbar) can be heated efficiently because of their low volumetric heat capacity, triggering the formation of a convective plume that is very efficient in transporting water vapor and ice at the global scale. Thick atmospheres (P 0.5 bar) have difficulty in producing precipitation far from the water flow area, and are more efficient in generating snowmelt. In any case, outflow channel formation events at any atmospheric pressure are unable to produce rainfall or significant snowmelt at latitudes below 40degN. As an example, for an outflow channel event (under a 0.2 bar atmospheric pressure and 45deg obliquity) releasing 106 km3 of water heated at 300 K and at a discharge rate of 109 m3 s-1 , the flow of water reaches the lowest point of the northern lowlands (around ~70degN, 30degW) after ~3 days and forms a 200 m deep lake of 4.2 × 106 km2 after ~20 days; the lake becomes entirely covered by an ice layer after ~500 days. Over the short term, such an event leaves 6.5 × 103 km3 of ice deposits by precipitation (0.65% of the initial outflow volume) and can be responsible for the melting of ~80 km3 (0.008% of the initial outflow volume; 1% of the deposited precipitation). Furthermore, these quantities decrease drastically (faster than linearly) for lower volumes of released water. Over the long term, we find that the presence of the ice-covered lake has a climatic impact similar to a simple body of water ice located in the Northern Plains.

For an obliquity of ~45deg and atmospheric pressures 80 mbar, we find that the lake ice is transported progressively southward through the mechanisms of sublimation and adiabatic cooling. At the same time, and as long as the initial water reservoir is not entirely sublimated (a lifetime of 105 martian years for the outflow channel event described above), ice deposits remain in the West Echus Chasma Plateau region where hints of hydrological activity contemporaneous with outflow channel formation events have been observed. However, because the high albedo of ice drives Mars to even colder temperatures, snowmelt produced by seasonal solar forcing is difficult to attain.

T. Bertrand and F. Forget. 3D modeling of organic haze in Pluto's atmosphere. Icarus, 287:72-86, 2017. [ bib | DOI | arXiv | ADS link ]

The New Horizons spacecraft, which flew by Pluto on July 14, 2015, revealed the presence of haze in Pluto's atmosphere that were formed by CH4/N2 photochemistry at high altitudes in Pluto's atmosphere, as on Titan and Triton. In order to help the analysis of the observations and further investigate the formation of organic haze and its evolution at global scales, we have implemented a simple parameterization of the formation of organic haze in our Pluto General Circulation Model. The production of haze in our model is based on the different steps of aerosol formation as understood on Titan and Triton: photolysis of CH4 in the upper atmosphere by Lyman-α UV radiation, production of various gaseous species, and conversion into solid particles through accumulation and aggregation processes. The simulations use properties of aerosols similar to those observed in the detached haze layer on Titan. We compared two reference simulations ran with a particle radius of 50 nm: with, and without South Pole N2 condensation. We discuss the impact of the particle radius and the lifetime of the precursors on the haze distribution. We simulate CH4 photolysis and the haze formation up to 600 km above the surface. Results show that CH4 photolysis in Pluto's atmosphere in 2015 occurred mostly in the sunlit summer hemisphere with a peak at an altitude of 250 km, though the interplanetary source of Lyman-α flux can induce some photolysis even in the Winter hemisphere. We obtained an extensive haze up to altitudes comparable with the observations, and with non-negligible densities up to 500 km altitude. In both reference simulations, the haze density is not strongly impacted by the meridional circulation. With No South Pole N2 condensation, the maximum nadir opacity and haze extent is obtained at the North Pole. With South Pole N2 condensation, the descending parcel of air above the South Pole leads to a latitudinally more homogeneous haze density with a slight density peak at the South Pole. The visible opacities obtained from the computed mass of haze, which is about 2-4 ×10-7 g cm-2 in the summer hemisphere, are similar for most of the simulation cases and in the range of 0.001-0.01, which is consistent with recent observations of Pluto and their interpretation.

F. Forget, T. Bertrand, M. Vangvichith, J. Leconte, E. Millour, and E. Lellouch. A post-new horizons global climate model of Pluto including the N2, CH4 and CO cycles. Icarus, 287:54-71, 2017. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

We have built a new 3D Global Climate Model (GCM) to simulate Pluto as observed by New Horizons in 2015. All key processes are parametrized on the basis of theoretical equations, including atmospheric dynamics and transport, turbulence, radiative transfer, molecular conduction, as well as phases changes for N2, CH2 and CO. Pluto's climate and ice cycles are found to be very sensitive to model parameters and initial states. Nevertheless, a reference simulation is designed by running a fast, reduced version of the GCM with simplified atmospheric transport for 40,000 Earth years to initialize the surface ice distribution and sub-surface temperatures, from which a 28-Earth-year full GCM simulation is performed. Assuming a topographic depression in a Sputnik-planum (SP)-like crater on the anti-Charon hemisphere, a realistic Pluto is obtained, with most N2 and CO ices accumulated in the crater, methane frost covering both hemispheres except for the equatorial regions, and a surface pressure near 1.1 Pa in 2015 with an increase between 1988 and 2015, as reported from stellar occultations. Temperature profiles are in qualitative agreement with the observations. In particular, a cold atmospheric layer is obtained in the lowest kilometers above Sputnik Planum, as observed by New Horizons's REX experiment. It is shown to result from the combined effect of the topographic depression and N2 daytime sublimation. In the reference simulation with surface N2 ice exclusively present in Sputnik Planum, the global circulation is only forced by radiative heating gradients and remains relatively weak. Surface winds are locally induced by topography slopes and by N2 condensation and sublimation around Sputnik Planum. However, the circulation can be more intense depending on the exact distribution of surface N2 frost. This is illustrated in an alternative simulation with N2 condensing in the South Polar regions and N2 frost covering latitudes between 35degN and 48degN. A global condensation flow is then created, inducing strong surface winds everywhere, a prograde jet in the southern high latitudes, and an equatorial superrotation likely forced by barotropic instabilities in the southern jet. Using realistic parameters, the GCM predict atmospheric concentrations of CO and CH4 in good agreement with the observations. N2 and CO do not condense in the atmosphere, but CH4 ice clouds can form during daytime at low altitude near the regions covered by N2 ice (assuming that nucleation is efficient enough). This global climate model can be used to study many aspects of the Pluto environment. For instance, organic hazes are included in the GCM and analysed in a companion paper (Bertrand and Forget, Icarus, this issue).

P. Rodriguez-Tress, M. Capello, F. Forget, M. Soria, S. Beeharry, N. Dussooa, and L. Dagorn. Associative behavior of yellowfin Thunnus albacares, skipjack Katsuwonus pelamis, and bigeye tuna T. obesus at anchored fish aggregating devices (FADs) off the coast of Mauritius. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 570:213-222, 2017. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

M. Mendillo, C. Narvaez, M. F. Vogt, M. Mayyasi, P. Mahaffy, M. Benna, L. Andersson, B. Campbell, F. Němec, Y. J. Ma, J.-Y. Chaufray, F. Leblanc, F. Gonzalez-Galindo, M. Á. Lopez-Valverde, F. Forget, and B. Jakosky. MAVEN and the total electron content of the Martian ionosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research (Space Physics), 122:3526-3537, 2017. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

Model studies of the ionosphere of Mars under daytime conditions reveal that for solar zenith angles of 0deg-40deg, the shapes and magnitudes of the electron density profiles Ne(h) change by only small amounts. This suggests that midday observations made by MAVEN instruments along slanted orbit segments can be used to represent vertical profiles. The total electron content (TEC), defined as the height integral of Ne(h), is a measure of the cold plasma reservoir of the Martian ionosphere. During MAVEN's Deep-Dip-#2 campaign of April 2015, observations of total ion density by Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer and electron density by Langmuir Probe and Waves from periapse ( 130 km) to 400 km were used to form TECtopsidevalidated by independent diagnostics and models. Orbit-by-orbit changes in topside TEC were then used to assess the magnitudes of plasma escape associated with both large and small changes in the topside slope of Ne(h)called an “ionopause episode.” The TEC changes due to these episodes, generalized to a global change, resulted in an escape flux of 3-6 × 1024 ions/s, an escape rate consistent with prior observation by Phobos-2, Mars Express, and MAVEN's own in situ studies.

M. Lefèvre, A. Spiga, and S. Lebonnois. Three-dimensional turbulence-resolving modeling of the Venusian cloud layer and induced gravity waves. Journal of Geophysical Research (Planets), 122:134-149, 2017. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

The impact of the cloud convective layer of the atmosphere of Venus on the global circulation remains unclear. The recent observations of gravity waves at the top of the cloud by the Venus Express mission provided some answers. These waves are not resolved at the scale of global circulation models (GCM); therefore, we developed an unprecedented 3-D turbulence-resolving large-eddy simulations (LES) Venusian model using the Weather Research and Forecast terrestrial model. The forcing consists of three different heating rates: two radiative ones for solar and infrared and one associated with the adiabatic cooling/warming of the global circulation. The rates are extracted from the Laboratoire de Météorlogie Dynamique Venus GCM using two different cloud models. Thus, we are able to characterize the convection and associated gravity waves in function of latitude and local time. To assess the impact of the global circulation on the convective layer, we used rates from a 1-D radiative-convective model. The resolved layer, taking place between 1.0 × 105 and 3.8 × 104 Pa (48-53 km), is organized as polygonal closed cells of about 10 km wide with vertical wind of several meters per second. The convection emits gravity waves both above and below the convective layer leading to temperature perturbations of several tenths of kelvin with vertical wavelength between 1 and 3 km and horizontal wavelength from 1 to 10 km. The thickness of the convective layer and the amplitudes of waves are consistent with observations, though slightly underestimated. The global dynamics heating greatly modify the convective layer.

G. Gilli, S. Lebonnois, F. González-Galindo, M. A. López-Valverde, A. Stolzenbach, F. Lefèvre, J. Y. Chaufray, and F. Lott. Thermal structure of the upper atmosphere of Venus simulated by a ground-to-thermosphere GCM. Icarus, 281:55-72, 2017. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

We present here the thermal structure of the upper atmosphere of Venus predicted by a full self-consistent Venus General Circulation Model (VGCM) developed at Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD) and extended up to the thermosphere of the planet. Physical and photochemical processes relevant at those altitudes, plus a non-orographic GW parameterisation, have been added. All those improvements make the LMD-VGCM the only existing ground-to-thermosphere 3D model for Venus: a unique tool to investigate the atmosphere of Venus and to support the exploration of the planet by remote sounding. The aim of this paper is to present the model reference results, to describe the role of radiative, photochemical and dynamical effects in the observed thermal structure in the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere of the planet. The predicted thermal structure shows a succession of warm and cold layers, as recently observed. A cooling trend with increasing latitudes is found during daytime at all altitudes, while at nighttime the trend is inverse above about 110 km, with an atmosphere up to 15 K warmer towards the pole. The latitudinal variation is even smaller at the terminator, in agreement with observations. Below about 110 km, a nighttime warm layer whose intensity decreases with increasing latitudes is predicted by our GCM. A comparison of model results with a selection of recent measurements shows an overall good agreement in terms of trends and order of magnitude. Significant data-model discrepancies may be also discerned. Among them, thermospheric temperatures are about 40-50 K colder and up to 30 K warmer than measured at terminator and at nighttime, respectively. The altitude layer of the predicted mesospheric local maximum (between 100 and 120 km) is also higher than observed. Possible interpretations are discussed and several sensitivity tests performed to understand the data-model discrepancies and to propose future model improvements.

C. Genthon, L. Piard, E. Vignon, J.-B. Madeleine, M. Casado, and H. Gallée. Atmospheric moisture supersaturation in the near-surface atmosphere at Dome C, Antarctic Plateau. Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics, 17:691-704, 2017. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]

Supersaturation often occurs at the top of the troposphere where cirrus clouds form, but is comparatively unusual near the surface where the air is generally warmer and laden with liquid and/or ice condensation nuclei. One exception is the surface of the high Antarctic Plateau. One year of atmospheric moisture measurement at the surface of Dome C on the East Antarctic Plateau is presented. The measurements are obtained using commercial hygrometry sensors modified to allow air sampling without affecting the moisture content, even in the case of supersaturation. Supersaturation is found to be very frequent. Common unadapted hygrometry sensors generally fail to report supersaturation, and most reports of atmospheric moisture on the Antarctic Plateau are thus likely biased low. The measurements are compared with results from two models implementing cold microphysics parameterizations: the European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasts through its operational analyses, and the Model Atmosphérique Régional. As in the observations, supersaturation is frequent in the models but the statistical distribution differs both between models and observations and between the two models, leaving much room for model improvement. This is unlikely to strongly affect estimations of surface sublimation because supersaturation is more frequent as temperature is lower, and moisture quantities and thus water fluxes are small anyway. Ignoring supersaturation may be a more serious issue when considering water isotopes, a tracer of phase change and temperature, largely used to reconstruct past climates and environments from ice cores. Because observations are easier in the surface atmosphere, longer and more continuous in situ observation series of atmospheric supersaturation can be obtained than higher in the atmosphere to test parameterizations of cold microphysics, such as those used in the formation of high-altitude cirrus clouds in meteorological and climate models.