M. Turbet, H. Tran, O. Pirali, F. Forget, C. Boulet, and J.-M. Hartmann. Far infrared measurements of absorptions by CH4 + CO2 and H2 + CO2 mixtures and implications for greenhouse warming on early Mars. Icarus, 321:189-199, 2019. [ bib | DOI | arXiv | ADS link ]
We present an experimental study of the absorption, between 40 and 640 cm-1, by CO2, CH4 and H2 gases as well as by H2 + CO2 and CH4 + CO2 mixtures at room temperature. A Fourier transform spectrometer associated to a multi-pass cell, whose optics were adjusted to obtain a 152 m path length, were used to record transmission spectra at total pressures up to about 0.98 bar. These measurements provide information concerning the collision-induced absorption (CIA) bands as well as about the wing of the CO2 15 μm band. Our results for the CIAs of pure gases are, within uncertainties, in agreement with previous determinations, validating our experimental and data analysis procedures. We then consider the CIAs by H2 + CO2 and CH4 + CO2 and the low frequency wing of the pure CO2 15 μm band, for which there are, to our knowledge, no previous measurements. We confirm experimentally the theoretical prediction of Wordsworth et al. (2017) that the H2 + CO2 and CH4 + CO2 CIAs are significantly stronger in the 50-550 cm-1 region than those of H2 + N2 and CH4 + N2, respectively. However, we find that the shape and the strength of these recorded CIAs differ from the aforementioned predictions. For the pure CO2 line-wings, we show that both the χ-factor deduced from measurements near 4 μm and a line-mixing model very well describe the observed strongly sub-Lorentzian behavior in the 500-600 cm-1 region. These experimental results open renewed perspectives for studies of the past climate of Mars and extrasolar analogues.
I. Ordonez-Etxeberria, R. Hueso, A. Sánchez-Lavega, E. Millour, and F. Forget. Meteorological pressure at Gale crater from a comparison of REMS/MSL data and MCD modelling: Effect of dust storms. Icarus, 317:591-609, 2019. [ bib | DOI | ADS link ]
We examine the record of atmospheric pressure in Gale crater measured in-situ by the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) instrument (Gómez-Elvira et al., 2012) on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover over two Martian years. We compare the data with pressure predictions from the Mars Climate Database (MCD) (Forget et al., 1999; Millour et al., 2015) version 5.2, which is a climatological database derived from numerical simulations of the Martian atmosphere produced by a General Circulation Model run over several Martian years. Seasonal and daily trends in pressure data from REMS are well reproduced by the standard climatology of the MCD using its high resolution mode. This high-resolution mode extrapolates pressure values from the nominal model into the altitude of each location using a high-resolution topography model and a fine tuning of the vertical scale height that was chosen to mimic effects of slope winds not directly accounted for in the General Circulation Model on which the MCD is based. Differences between the synthetic MCD pressure data and the REMS measurements are produced by meteorological features that are identified on particular groups of sols and quantified in intensity. We show that regional dust storms outside Gale crater and dust abundance at the crater are important factors in the behaviour of the pressure exciting larger amplitudes on the daily pressure variations and causing most of the largest REMS-MCD differences. We compare the pressure signals with published data of the dust optical depth obtained by the REMS ultraviolet photodiodes and the Mastcam instrument on MSL, and with orbital images of the planet acquired by the MARCI instrument on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). We show that in some cases regional dust storms induce a characteristic signature in the surface pressure measured by REMS several sols before the dust arrives to Gale crater. We explore the capability of daily pressure measurements to serve as a fast detector of the development of dust storms in the context of the MSL, Insight and Mars 2020 missions.
W. Pluriel, E. Marcq, and M. Turbet. Modeling the albedo of Earth-like magma ocean planets with H2O-CO2 atmospheres. Icarus, 317:583-590, 2019. [ bib | DOI | arXiv | ADS link ]
During accretion, the young rocky planets are so hot that they become endowed with a magma ocean. From that moment, the mantle convective thermal flux control the cooling of the planet and an atmosphere is created by outgassing. This atmosphere will then play a key role during this cooling phase. Studying this cooling phase in details is a necessary step to explain the great diversity of the observed telluric planets and especially to assess the presence of surface liquid water. We used here a radiative-convective 1D atmospheric model (H2O, CO2) to study the impact of the Bond albedo on the evolution of magma ocean planets. We derived from this model the thermal emission spectrum and the spectral reflectance of these planets, from which we calculated their Bond albedos. Compared to Marcq et al. (2017), the model now includes a new module to compute the Rayleigh scattering, and state of the art CO2 and H2O gaseous opacities data in the visible and infrared spectral ranges. We show that the Bond albedo of these planets depends on their surface temperature and results from a competition between Rayleigh scattering from the gases and Mie scattering from the clouds. The colder the surface temperature is, the thicker the clouds are, and the higher the Bond albedo is. We also evidence that the relative abundances of CO2 and H2O in the atmosphere strongly impact the Bond albedo. The Bond albedo is higher for atmospheres dominated by the CO2, better Rayleigh scatterer than H2O. Finally, we provide the community with an empirical formula for the Bond albedo that could be useful for future studies of magma ocean planets.